Flashcards in Hypertension and Hyperlipidaemia Deck (71)
Stage 1 Hypertension
clinic blood pressure is higher than 140/90 mmHg AND ambulatory BP is 135/85mmHg average
Stage 2 Hypertension
clinic BP is higher than 160/100mmHg AND ambulatory BP is 150/95mmHg or higher
Stage 3 hypertension
clinic systolic is 180mmHg or higher OR clinic diastolic is 110mmHg or higher
Potentially affected organs in hypertension (5)
Brain, Eyes, Kidneys, Heart, Arterial Tree
Potential effect of hypertension on the brain
Potential effect of hypertension on the eyes
Potential effect of hypertension on the kidneys
narrowing and thickening of renal arteries leading to kidney damage
Potential effect of hypertension on the heart
MI, congestive heart failure
Potential effect of hypertension on the arteries
Populations more likely to have high BP
Structural changes that occur in the arteries due to hypertension
internal elastic lamina thickening
smooth muscle hypertrophy
all of these reduce the lumen and increase shear stress on the intima
artherosclerosis causes a(n) _______ in total peripheral resistance
types of hypertension (2)
primary (essential) and secondary
Most common type of hypertension
primary (essential) 90-95% of cases
Good form of cholesterol
Bad form of cholesterol
4 major types of lipoproteins
HDL, LDL, VLDL, Chylomicrons
Lipid are soluble in water - True or false
What can lipids be used for? (3)
energy, hormones, signalling molecules
The hydrophobic core in lipoproteins contains?
esterified cholesterol and triglycerides
The hydrophillic coat of lipoproteins contains?
amphipathic cholesterol, phospholipids and one or more apoproteins
Cardiovascular disease is associated with which types of lipids?
elevated LDL, high triglycerides, low HDL
where does the majority of cholesterol come from?
from the bile, only 25% comes from the diet
The majority of LDL is cleared by...
Rate limiting enzyme in de novo cholesterol synthesis
HMG CoA reductase
Released cholesterol causes: (3)
inhibition of HMG coA reductase; down regulation of LDL receptor express; storage of cholesterol as an ester
Clearance of LDL is dependent upon?
the LDL receptor on the liver and other tissues
Why is LDL cholesterol bad in the arteries?
it migrates into the intima and produces OXLDL which causes the migration of monocytes into the endothelium and the formation of foam cells and a fatty streak.
Why is HDL cholesterol the good cholesterol?
transports excess cholesterol back to the liver where it can be cleared from the body