Hypertension and Hyperlipidaemia Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Hypertension and Hyperlipidaemia Deck (71)
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1

Stage 1 Hypertension

clinic blood pressure is higher than 140/90 mmHg AND ambulatory BP is 135/85mmHg average

2

Stage 2 Hypertension

clinic BP is higher than 160/100mmHg AND ambulatory BP is 150/95mmHg or higher

3

Stage 3 hypertension

clinic systolic is 180mmHg or higher OR clinic diastolic is 110mmHg or higher

4

Potentially affected organs in hypertension (5)

Brain, Eyes, Kidneys, Heart, Arterial Tree

5

Potential effect of hypertension on the brain

stroke

6

Potential effect of hypertension on the eyes

Impaired vision

7

Potential effect of hypertension on the kidneys

narrowing and thickening of renal arteries leading to kidney damage

8

Potential effect of hypertension on the heart

MI, congestive heart failure

9

Potential effect of hypertension on the arteries

atherosclerosis
aortic aneurysm

10

Populations more likely to have high BP

African-americans
deprived areas

11

Structural changes that occur in the arteries due to hypertension

internal elastic lamina thickening
smooth muscle hypertrophy
fibrosis
all of these reduce the lumen and increase shear stress on the intima

12

artherosclerosis causes a(n) _______ in total peripheral resistance

increase

13

types of hypertension (2)

primary (essential) and secondary

14

Most common type of hypertension

primary (essential) 90-95% of cases

15

Good form of cholesterol

HDL

16

Bad form of cholesterol

LDL

17

4 major types of lipoproteins

HDL, LDL, VLDL, Chylomicrons

18

Lipid are soluble in water - True or false

false

19

What can lipids be used for? (3)

energy, hormones, signalling molecules

20

The hydrophobic core in lipoproteins contains?

esterified cholesterol and triglycerides

21

The hydrophillic coat of lipoproteins contains?

amphipathic cholesterol, phospholipids and one or more apoproteins

22

Cardiovascular disease is associated with which types of lipids?

elevated LDL, high triglycerides, low HDL

23

where does the majority of cholesterol come from?

from the bile, only 25% comes from the diet

24

The majority of LDL is cleared by...

the liver

25

Rate limiting enzyme in de novo cholesterol synthesis

HMG CoA reductase

26

Released cholesterol causes: (3)

inhibition of HMG coA reductase; down regulation of LDL receptor express; storage of cholesterol as an ester

27

Clearance of LDL is dependent upon?

the LDL receptor on the liver and other tissues

28

Why is LDL cholesterol bad in the arteries?

it migrates into the intima and produces OXLDL which causes the migration of monocytes into the endothelium and the formation of foam cells and a fatty streak.

29

Why is HDL cholesterol the good cholesterol?

transports excess cholesterol back to the liver where it can be cleared from the body

30

Secondary dyslipidaemia is a consequence of other diseases such as...(4)

T2DM, hypothyroidism, alcoholism, liver disease