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Flashcards in Pharmacology Deck (273)
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1

B1-adrenoceptor couples to the g-protein....

Gs

2

The sympathetic nervous system releases noradrenaline as a __________ _____________ and adrenaline as a ___________ ___________

Post-ganglionic transmitter
Adrenomedullary hormone

3

B1-adrenoceptors are activated in which locations? (2)

Nodal cells
Myocardial cells

4

Activations of b1-adrecopteors NASA positive/negative chronotropic force

Positive

5

Chronotropic is an increase in

Rate

6

Ionotropic is...

Force

7

Increase in heart rate in presence of noradrenaline is due to what?

Increase in slope of phase 4 of action potential
Reduction in threshold for AP initiation due to enhanced Ica

8

Increase in contractility in the presence of noradrenaline is due to?

Increased in phase 2 of AP
Sensitisation of contractile proteins to calcium

9

The duration of systole is ______in the presence of noradrenaline

Decreased - this is a positive lusitropic reaction

10

Noradrenaline causes a ______ in the efficiency of the heart muscle

Decrease - heart starts to use oxygen less efficiently

11

Effect of noradrenaline on the Na-K-ATPase

Increases activity which is important for the normal balance of ions across the membrane

12

Parasympathetic system releases ___ to the cardiac muscle

ACh

13

In the heart, ACh acts on ____ muscarinic cholinoceptors largely in the ______ cells

M2
Nodal

14

The M2 receptor couples to the ____ g-protein

Gi

15

Coupling through Gi decreases the activity of ______ _______ thus reducing _______. The ________ potassium channel is opened causing a hyperpolarisation mediated by _________

Adenylate cyclase, cAMP.
GIRK, G-by subunits

16

Parasympathetic action of the cardiac muscle is.... (3)

Decreased chronotropic effect
Slight decrease in contractility
Decreased conduction in AV node

17

Why does the parasympathetic stimulation of the heart have little/no effect on ventricular contractility?

There is no parasympathetic stimulation on the ventricles

18

Parasympathetic stimulation of the heart may cause ....

Arrhythmias to occur in the atria

19

Vagal manoeuvres can can be used to...

Suppress atrial tachycardia

20

The funny current is mediated by channels that are activated by....(2)

hyperpolarisation and cAMP

21

other name for funny current channels

HCN

22

Blocking HCN channels causes what?

decrease of slope of pacemaker potential and reduces HR

23

Drug used to block HCN channels

Ivabradine

24

Ivabradine

Selectively blocks HCN Channels - slows HR in angina and reduces cardiac O2 consumption

25

cAMP is converted to 5'AMP by ...

PDE - phosphodiesterase

26

Inhibition of PDE has a positive/negative inotropic

positive

27

Drug which inhibit PDE in acute heart failure

milrinone

28

Catecholamines that act as b-adrenoceptor agonists (3)

dobutamine, adrenaline, noradrenaline

29

Actions of b-adrenoceptor agonists

increase rate, force and CO and O2 consumption

30

Medical situations for use of adrenaline

Cardiac arrest; anaphylactic shock