Flashcards in Hypothalamus Deck (21)
what are the anatomical boundaries of the hypothalamus?
1. superior - hypothalamic sulcus 2. anterior - lamina terminalis 3. posterior - midbrain (interpeduncular fossa) 4. inferior - optic chiasm, tuber cinereum, mammillary bodies
what is the major blood supply to the hypothalamus?
perforating branches from Circle of Willis
what are the major inputs to the hypothalamus?
1. cerebrum 2. limbic system (hippocampus, amygdala, cingulate gyrus, thalamus) 3. retina 4. brainstem / spinal cord 5. intrinsic neurons
what is the function of the suprachiasmatic nucleus of the hypothalamus?
circadian cycles, internal clock
what is the function of the mammillary bodies?
processing emotional information
what is the function of the anterior and posterior nuclei of the hypothalamus?
regulation of body temperature
what is the function of the ventromedial and lateral nuclei of the hypothalamus?
satiety and feeding
what is the function of the supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei of the hypothalamus?
produces hormones for posterior pituitary
what is the function of the preoptic, medial preoptic, arcuate, and periventricular nuclei of the hypothalamus?
release or inhibition of hormones of anterior pituitary
the suprachiasmatic nucleus of the hypothalamus receives light information from the retina via which tract?
which hypothalamus nucleus contains many melatonin receptors?
the pineal gland works on which hypothalamic nucleus to regulate day / night cycles?
which components of the hypothalamic relay system are used for light and circadian rhythms?
pineal gland - suprachiasmatic nucleus of hypothalamus - dorsal longitudinal fasciculus - reticular formation
what are the primary inputs to the mammillary bodies?
hippocapus and amygdala via fornix
the parasympathetic output from the hypothalamus is via which nuclei?
preoptic and anterior
the sympathetic output from the hypothalamus is via which nuclei?
which hypothalamic nuclei are responsible for the initiation of heat loss? heat production?
1. heat loss - preoptic and anterior 2. heat production - posterior
stimulation of which hypothalamic nuclei induce eating behavior? satiety?
1. eating - lateral nucleus 2. satiety - ventromedial
stimulation of which hypothalamic zone induces desire to drink fluids?
which hypothalamic nuclei are responsible for hormonal control of the posterior pituitary? via which tract?
1. supraoptic and paraventricular 2. hypothalamohypophyseal tract