Illicit Drugs - NECESSSARY FACTs Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Illicit Drugs - NECESSSARY FACTs Deck (16)
1

Cocaine Intoxication - WORST CONSEQUENCES

 

Other side effects? 

Cardiac arrhythmia, Stroke, MI

Rhabdomyolysis from constricture of muscle vasculature

DEATH!!!

 

also see increased DTR, Hyper-mydriasis, sweating, tics etc 

Grandiose euphoria and can look manic

 

Can also see Tactile Hallucinations - Formication = bugs crawling on skin! 

2

Treatmend for cocaine intoxication? 

For seizures - diazepam or phenytoin

MI - TREAT THE MI

 

AGitation and angina - BZD and occasionally Nitroglycerin

3

What's Withdrawal from cocaine like? Life threatening or not? 

Not life threatening but can last for several days 

occasionaly increased risk of suicide

 

Psychological Depression!!! Cocaine blocks reuptake of catecholamine and so stop using and get refractory period where receptors upregulated but not releasing as much and so physiological depressoin

4

Stimulant intoxication? 

Same as cocaine but more psychotic symptoms and effects take longer to start and last longer

 

Same thing with withdrawal 

5

Hallucinogen intoxication - effects? and treatment

Effects - not life threatening except ppl do stupid shit on them

Tachycardia, sweating, mydriasis, anticholinergic effects, hyperthermia, Depersonalization and derealziation, Illusion, synaesthesia

 

Treatment - supportive, Benzo, anitpsychotic if bad hallucinations

6

What is Hallucinogen Persisting PErception disorder? 

Flashbacks that occur after you stop using hallucinogen and can continue for months to years

 

triggered by stress, fatugie, anxiety, dark environments, drug use

 

 

7

PCP - Onset/Duration, Side Effects 

Quick onset and can last for several hours to DAYS!!! But can Wax and wane from wild to sedated - like Delirium 

CAN DIE FROM EFFECTS

 

Often people commit Serious Self-Injuryious acts w/o realizing it bc it is a semi-anesthetic

 

Effects

- VERTICAL AND HORIZONTAL GAZE NYSTAGMUS!!! 

HTN, Tachycardia, decreased pain, ataxia, slurred speech, muscle rigidity, hyperthermia, euphoria 

 

Dissociateive symptoms 

Can cause Paralysis symptoms

8

Mechanism of Action of PCP? Treatment of Intoxication? 

NMDA Glutamate Receptors!

 

Tx - supportive and quiet, safe environment

Agitation - can use BZD

 

No longer do acidification of urine

9

BZD Intoxication? 

 

Treatment? 

Like Alcohol intoxication - minimal respiratory effects when used alone but dangerous when used in combination

 

Treatment - supportive

Flumezanil - BZD receptor Antagonist but be careful bc can put into BZD withdrawal which is life threatening! 

10

BZD Withdrawal - what's it like? 

Can be Fatal!!!

Same as for EtOH but onset later after last use and course is longer

 

 

Seziures can be common 

 

Treatment is same as for alchohol 

11

Opioid intoxiction - What it's like? In infants? Treatment? 

CAN BE FATAL FROM CENTRAL RESP DEPRESSION

see Miosis, drowsiness, constipation, itching, euphoira, psychomotor retardation 

In Infants - see seizures

 

 

Treattment - Establish Oxygenation!!!

 

Naloxone - Mu Antagonist given IV, IM, or Rectal and can reverse respiratory depression 

 

Caution w/ Methadone OD bc much longer so can RE-narcanize

12

Opidate Withdrawal - what's it like? Is it life threatening? 

 

Treatments? 

Withdrawal seen w/in 6-24 hrs or several days longer and subacute symptoms can last for months

 

NOT life-threatening Except in Noenates and Disabled!!! 

 

Symptoms - goosebumps, dilation, sweating, runny nose, N/V, Diarrhea, Tachycardia, HTN, MUSCLE TWITCHING

Seizures in Neonates

 

 

TREATMENT

1) Clonidine - Alpha blocker bc LC gets inhibited w/ chronic opioid use and then stop suddenly and get bad sympathetic rebound effects so this helps dampen those

2) Methadone

3) Buprenorphine - Partial Mu Agonist 

13

3 types of inhalants? 

Volatile Organic Compounds - CNS depressants 

 

Nitrites - Vasodilate and smooth muscle relaxation 

 

Nitrous Oxide - CNS depressant and alters neuronal memnbranes and Da/Opiate system

14

Inhalant Withdrawal and Intoxication

Intoxication - short, nystagmus, unsteady gait, slurred speech, euphoria, collapse, light-heeaded

Only supportive Measures

DANGER - Nitrites and Vasodilation - Bottom Out BP

 

Inhalant Withdrawal - non-specific seen a few days after last use

15

STeroid Intoxication, Treatment, Withdrawal

Symptoms - Roid rage, HA, sweating, HTN, ab pain, increased appetite, aggression, insomnia

 

Treatment - Supportive, Psychosis can treat w/ neuroleptic if prolonged, Agitation treat w/ BZD

 

Withdrawal - non-specific and opposite effects of symptoms

DETOX w/ SLOW taper

16

Ketamine - what's so weird about ketamine intoxication

Dissociative Anesthetic - In the K hole

 

Vertical Nystagmus!!! 

Hallucinations and disocation but realtively cal