What are the Brain Parts that are involved in fear?
Amygala - threat processing
Ventromedial Prefrontal Cortex - fear regulation and controls amygdala
Hippocampus - provides context of fear
What are the neurocircuitry changes that you see in PTSD?
Increased Amygdala activity and decreased VMPFC activity
What are biological markers of PTSD?
increased autonomic activity - HR and skin conductance
Increased Facial muscle repsonse
+/- Cortisol elevation
Criteria (DSM5) for PTSD?
A) direct exposure/experience/witness to threat/trauma
B) one or more intrusion symptoms: recurrent memories, recurrent dreams, flashbacks, prolonged physiological distress, marked physical reactions
C) Persistence of avoidance behaviors - avoiding memories, reminders, situations
D) Alterations in cognition and mood about the event - can't remember parts, feeling something's wrong, distorted cognitions, persistent negative emotional state, less interest in activities, feeling detached/estranged from others, inability to experience positive emotions
E) Alterations in arousal and activity - hypervigilance, angry outbursts, reckless behavior, STARTLE RESPONSE, sleep or concentration problems
What are the Dissociative Symptoms of PTSD?
Depersonalization - unreal feeling of self or body
Derealization - world around them unreal
Non-Pharmacological treatments for PTDS?
2 Types of Psychotherapy:
CBT - go back to make sense of event
Prolonged Exposure - talk about experience for HOURS to process event
Medications used to treat PTSD?
Antidepressants if have additional affective disorder
Benzodiazepines - try to avoid bc get easily hooked
Prazosin - Alpha 1 Adrenergic for nightmares