Treatment for ET
what dp you look for on imaging when doing a seizure workup?
between seizures what do you look for of EEG?
Medial Temporal Sclerosis or Cortical Dysplasia or tumor
Look for Inter-Ictal Spike --> spark for seizures
considerations in treatment in kids w absent seizures
Cognitive side effects - Topiramate
Bheavioral - Phenobarb, Levetiracetam
weight loss in growing child - topiramate
Valproid acid - Girls in puberty !!!
What are causes of worsening ischemic stroke?
Cytotoxic brain edema
Symptomatic Hemorrhagic Transformation
Recurrent Ischemic Stroke
Childhood Absense DX feature
JME Dx Feature
3 spikes/second - absence
4-6 / sec JME
What is Apomorphine?
DA Agonist Rescue Therapy for Parkinson's Disease Acts right away and can be given when run out of dosing for LDOPA
What do you worry about w/ Dermatomyositis?
CANCER!! Also a paraneoplastic syndrome
Most common death in people w/ movement disorder?
Pneunomia!! - from dysphagia
Treatment for Huntingtons?
Tetrabenazine - DA blocker that suppresses Chorea but not other symptoms
Lambert Eaton is what? Associated w what?
SMALL CELL CARCINOMA!!!! Paraneoplastic syndrome
Pre-synaptic Ca channel!!!
Pts are worse in morning and better throughout the day w/ activity
Name the Taupathies.
Name the Synucleinopathies
- FTD - Picks Disease
- PSP - Tau + Vertical Gaze PAral
- CBD - Tau + Alien Limb Phenomenon
- MSA - but Alpha synuclein in Oligodendrocytes in 3 places!!!
Symptoms of Tabes Dorsalis?
No sense of proprioception, Charcot Joints, Rhomberg signe
Syphilis causes loss of myelin and axons in neurons of Dorsal column
what disease makes " moth eaten white matter"?
PML - Oligod inclusions
PLaques are yellow-ish from lipid laden macrophages
clues for Guillan Barre
"cytoalbuminogenic" CSF - normal cells but high protein from demyelination
T cells and Macrophages
6 yo girl w/ developmental delay, weakness and scoliosis goes in for surgery and dies from malignant hyperthermia - what does she have
Central Core Disease - Type 1 Fiber centers where NADH-reductase in mitochondira not reactive and central core looks pale
AD inheritance of RYR1
17 yo girl w/ intractable migraine, ex intolerance, muscle pain and cramping
Left Homonymous hemianospia
Elevated CPK and LACTIC ACIDOSIS
MELAS = Migraine, Episodes that are stroke-like, Lactic Acisosis , Seizures
Ragged Red Fibers
Paracrystalline Parking lot mitochondrial inclusions
Encephalomyopathy, Lactici Acidosis, Stroke-like Episodes
Heteroplasmy - uneven segregation of mitochrondia w/in cells
Treatments for AD
Cholinesterase Inhibitors: Donezapil, Rivastigmine, Galantamine
NMDA Antagonists - Memantine
DO NOT GIVE - AntiCholinergics
- Oxybutinin, Benztropine, Diphenhydramine, PAroxetine, Amitryptiline, Trihedyphenidryl
what does neuroimaging of PTSD show?
Increased activity in Amygdala - threat processing
Decreased activity in Medial Prefrontal Cortex - Fear Regulation
What is Prazosin? What is it used for?
Prazosin is a Anti-HTN Medicaiton that is an Alpha Adrenergic blocker but is used in PTSD to reduce nightmares
What are each of these and how do you use theM
Buprenorphine - Partial Mu Agonist used for opiate addictoin
Buspirone- 5HT1A Partial Agonist used to treat GAD
Bupropione - NDRI antidepressant used to quit smoking