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Flashcards in Imaging in Cancer Deck (30):
1

conventional diagnosis

endoscopy/biopsy and barium

w/o aid of computer

2

radio-opaque contrast used for outlining GI

Barium Sulphate

high atomic no of barium absorbs more xray photons than other tisc - white on radiograph

3

barium swallow and meal

oesophagus , stomach and duodenum

4

barium follow through

small bowel

fast for 4-6 hrs

5

barium enema

large bowel

low residue diet for 48 hours and bowel cleaning with Picolax

6

Barium is limited than Endoscopy as ... cannot be taken

biopsy

7

double barium contrast is more than single as it doesn't

obstruct the view of surrounding tissue

8

...... is a modern version of barium enema

CT colonoscopy

9

Which has higher radiation dose - barium meal or enema?

Barium enema - 7 mSv

meal - 1.5 mSv

10

cross sectional imaging includes

CT, MRI, PET

11

Xrays produce image of slice of tisc usually in an axial place using computing to create image

Computed tomography
CT

12

CT image reconstructed when .... decay/absorbed depending on density

photons

13

attenuation of values of voxels are expressed as a CT no. which relates the attenuation value to that of water

Hounsfield Unit (HU)


(air -1000; bone +3000; water 0)

Bone most dense

14

gastrografin

oral CT contrast agent (dilute iodine based)

outline GI -but less common - better resolution in new gen scanners

used for elderly if enema & CT colonscopy not possible

15

omnipaque

IV CT contrast agents - iodine based - injected into veins to demonstrate blood vessels or the vascularity of diff tisc


16

occasionally allergy and anaphylactic reaction occur using this contrast

IV (CT) contrast - iodine based (Omnipaque)

17

Diagnosis and staging of cancer is dependent on

1.depth of penetrance of tumour
2.position
3. involvement of regional lymph nodes
4.presence of distant metastases
5. relationship to adjacent structures

18

what scan used for Identifying metabolism?

PET

so not used for liver, background disruption as it has high metabolism - so

19

The object has to be stationary for these scans to be effective

MRI
CT

20

..... not effective for airy areas (least dense)/less tisc

MRI

21

Spinal cord, CNS and MSK visualised by

MRI

these structures are small to be detected by CT

22

CT Radiation dose for abdomen and pelvis

-10mSv

23

CT Radiation dose for chest

-8 mSv

24

ALARA principle

examination necessary?
enough clinical info and appropriate protocol?
avoid rpt examinations

25

Strong magnetic field aligns protons(H+) and this is measured by

MRI

magnetic force unit - tesla

26

Radiofrequency pulse displaces ...... and images created by displaying time taken for ....... to ..... back to the original alignment.

1 and 2: protons

3. relax


Water - very light - rotate long time

Fat - heavy - rotate less time

27

MRI Indications

1. bone soft tisc detail
2. vessels
3. brain, spine and MSK
4. abdo and pelvis
5.cardiac

28

MRI disadvantage

claustrophobic and noisy
motion artefact
cannot image patients with pacemakes and aneurysm clips

29

gadolinium DTPA

IV contrast

easily see vascular lesions and some tumours

30

NHS screening for:

BBC
Breast - Mammogram
Bowel
Cervix - PAP smear