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Flashcards in Immune Deck (64)
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1

Morphology of Acute Transplant Rejection

-humoral (B cell): C4d deposition, neutrophilic infiltrate (PMNs), endotheliitis
-cellular (T cell): lymphocytic (MONOnuclear) interstitial infiltrate and endotheliits

2

Humoral Response

-bacteria
-neutrophils (PMNs)
-B cells with antibodies

3

Cellular Response

-viruses
-lymphocytes (mononuclear)
-T cells

4

Acute Rheumatic Fever

-molecular mimicry
-due to anti group A strep antibodies that cross react with cardiac and nervous antigens
-pancarditis, arthritis, sydenham chorea
-mitral regurg/stenosis

5

Guillain Barre

-ascending paralysis
-can be caused by campylobacter jejuni
-demyelinating syndrome of peripheral nerves
-characterized by endoneural inflammatory infiltration (lymphocytes and macrophages)
-antibodies from febrile illness cross react with myelin of spinal roots and peripheral nerves

6

Myasthenia Gravis

-muscle weakness (ptosis, diplopia)
-weakness worsens with activity or at the end of each day
-majority of pts also found to have thymoma or thymic hyperplasia
-antibodies attack the Ach receptor

7

Lambert Eaton Myasthenic Syndrome

-antibody to Ca channel in presynaptic nerve terminal
-weakness improves with exercise
Associated with malignancy in half of cases (esp. Small cell lung cancer)

8

Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

-most common motor neuron disease
-combine UMN (spasticity, hyperreflexia) and LMN (weakness, fasciculations) lesions are characteristic
-damage to motor neurons of an. horn and demyelination of corticospinal tract present
-atrophy of lateral corticospinal tracts

9

IL1

-produced by macrophages and epithelial cells
-pro inflammatory
-commonly secreted by malignant plasma cells in multiple myeloma
-osteoclast activating factor that causes lytic bone lesions

10

IL5

-secreted by Th2 cells
-promotes humoral response with class switching to IgA.
Calls in eosinophils.

11

IL12

-secreted by macrophages
-induces differentiation of naive T cells into Th1 helper cells and activation of NK cells
Pts with a def. will have mycobacterial infections and can be tx with IFNgamma

12

TNFa

-produced by macrophages, NK cells, and T cells
-proinflammatory
-inc. expression of adhesion molecules
-important in septic shock response

13

IL10

-anti-inflammatory cytokine
-dec. Th1 cytokines and MHC2 expression
-protective effect in Crohns Disease
-Increases TH2 T cells
-Secreted by TH2 cells

14

Sarcoidosis

-young black women
-malaise, cough, erythema nodosum
-bilateral hilar lymphadenopathy
-transbronchial biopsy of non-caseating granulomas necessary for dx
-inflammatory dz of unknown etiology
-elevated ACE
-CD4 cells predominate

15

CREST Syndrome

-calcinosis
-raynauds
-esophageal dysmotility
-sclerodactyly (tightening of skin on fingers)
-telangiectasias (dilated capillaries)
-variant of systemic sclerosis
-can lead to pulmonary HTN

16

IL2

Anti tumor properties through activation of natural killer cells and T cells
Secreted by helper T cells

17

CD14

Surface marker of monocyte/macrophages.

18

IL4

Secreted by TH2 cells.
Enable class switching to IgE.

19

Interleukins secreted by TH2 cells?

IL4, IL5, IL10

20

Cytokines and interleukins secreted by TH1 cells?

Interferon gamma (also secreted by NK cells)
Stimulates macrophages to kill phagocytosed pathogens.
IL2, IFNgamma, IL12

21

Cytokines secreted by all T cells?

IL2 (stimulates T cells)
IL3 (stimulates bone marrow)
Stimulate and support immune system growth

22

Cytokines secreted by macrophages?

IL1 (fever)
IL6 (stimulates acute phase protein production)
IL8
IL12
TNFa (mediates septic shock)

23

HOT Tbone stEAK

IL1 (fever)
IL2 (stimulates T cells)
IL3 (stimulates bone marrow)
IL4 (stimulates IgE)
IL5 (stimulates IgA)
IL6 (aKute phase protein production)

24

Clean up on aisle 8

Neutrophils are recruited by IL8 to clear infections. Produced by macrophages. Causes cont. inflammation.

25

Pt's neutrophils fail to turn blue on nitro blue tetrazolium testing?

Chronic Granulomatous Disease
X linked mutation affecting NADPH oxidase, which normally generates ROS to kill bugs.
Pt at inc. risk of catalase positive organisms due to dec. effect of neutrophils.

26

Citrullinated Peptide Antibodies... Dx?

Rheumatoid Arthritis

27

TGF beta

-controls cell proliferation, inhibits macrophages
Healing and resolution molecule with IL 10. AtTENunates immune response.

28

Regulatory T Cell Phenotype

-CD4+
-CD25+
-foxp3+

29

4 things that attract neutrophils?

leukotriene B4, C5a, IL8, bacterial products

30

3 Things that activate mast cells?

Tissue trauma
C3a and Ca
Cross linking of cell surface IgE by antigen