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Flashcards in Immunisation Deck (22):
1

When was smallpox eradicated?

1979

2

agent that causes epiglottis that has not been seen in Melb since the introduction of the vaccine

Haemophilus influenzae type B

3

what are some of the applications of immunisations

prevent infection
treat infection
prevent/treat non-infectious conditions
modify immune response
modify physiological processes

4

what are the main types of immunisations?

active (give antigens so person develops immunity)
passive (give antibodies or immune cells)

5

Passive Immunisation with IgG

comes from pooled Immunoglobulin
random screening of blood donations for antibodies against certain condition

6

example of passive immunisation being used to modify the course of a disease

measles: people giving IgG to decrease severity of the condition
also tetanus, diphtheria

7

techniques used for immunising people with living agents

unattenuated
empirically attenuated
rationally attenuated
Reassortants
Antigen expressen on living vector

8

what is an unattenuation?

giving the person a similar virus that shares antigens with the pathogen [rotavirus] OR giving them the pathogen in a route different to that in which they can cause disease [adenovirus given by mouth]

9

empirical attenuation is

growing the pathogen in conditions adverse for its growth
BCG vaccine [mycobacterium bovis]

10

rational attenuation

erasing genes so the pathogen is less pathogenic
not currently in use
cholera

11

Reassortants

give a pathogen new antigenic DNA from a second pathogen (nothing too pathogenic) so the person develops immunity against 2 pathogens
example of rotavirus growing at different temperatures

12

what are some examples of living empirically attenuated vaccines being used?

Viruses (measles-mumps-rubella, varicella zoster, yellow fever)
Bacteria (BCG,typhoid21a)

13

examples of inactivated vaccines?

Viruses (polioSalkIPV,influenza, HAV, japanese encephalitis, rabies)
Bacteria (cholera,typoid,pertusis [whole cell, induces fever no longer used], Q fever)
[bacterial not widely used anymore]

14

type of immunisation done by immunising people against pathogen by inducing immunity against a non-replicating component

Component Vaccines

15

example of component vaccines

Viruses (HBV, HPV virus like particles)
Bacteria (diphtheria, tetanus,cholera, against capsules, pertussis[3-5 components])

16

immunisation against HBV is achieved by

inducing the production of surface antigens in yeast and then farming those to be used as an injection in humans

17

explain an example of component vaccines

cholera vaccine the toxin is cleaved and 2 ßsubunits joint together

18

what are some of the advantages of living vaccines?

broader immune response
local immunity (sometimes)
ease of administration (sometimes)

19

give one example of local immunity developed against poliovirus?

IgA antibodies produced against the attenuated virus being taken by mouth (oral vaccine)

20

what are some disadvantages of living vaccines?

Disease (back mutation, spread [immunocompromised], contamination)
Failure (dead, pre-existing immunity, interference)

21

what are some of the advantages of killed vaccines?

stable
contamination unlikely
cannot spread
safe for the immune deficient

22

what are some disadvantages of killed vaccines?

weaker immune response
high dose
need adjuvants
expensive