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Flashcards in Immunisation Principles and Practice Deck (55):
1

What are the types of immunisation?

  • Active
  • Passive

2

What is active immunisation termed?

Vaccination

3

What does vaccination produce?

Long-lasting protective immunity

4

What is passive immunisation?

Injection of antibodies

5

What do injections of immunoglobulins provide?

Short term protection against certain infections

6

What are injections of immunoglobulins useful in?

The management of immune disorders

7

How are injections of immunoglobulins obtained?

Pooled plasma, containing antibodies of certain prevalent pathogens

8

What can post-exposure management be used for?

  • HBV
  • VZV
  • Tetanus

9

What is the main drawback of passive immunisation?

  • The short acting effect it has
  • The potential contamination with infected blood

10

Why is there potential for contamination with infected blood with passive immunisation?

As they are a blood product

11

What does vaccination aim to do?

Improve the adaptive immune response to antigens of a particular microbe so that the first infection produces a secondary immune response (IgG)

12

How long do vaccines last?

A long time, but may require booster responses

13

What features should an effective vaccine have?

  • Safe
  • Protective for a sustained period
  • Induce the neutralising antibody whilst being biologically Stable
  • Cheap
  • Easy to produce

14

What are vaccines derived from?

Viruses or bacteria, or their antigenic components

15

What are the types of vaccines?

  • Live
  • Non-replicating
  • Toxoids

16

What do live vaccines contain?

Strains of the pathogen where the pathogenicity has been removed (attenuated)

17

Give two examples of live vaccines

  • BCG 
  • MMR

18

What is the problem with live vaccines?

  • They can cause disease in immunocompromised patients
  • Can't be used during pregnancy

19

Why can't live vaccines be used during pregnancy?

Due to the risk of foetal infection

20

What are non-replicating vaccines?

Can be either whole organisms, or fragmented containing their antigenic components

21

Give an example of a non-replicating vaccine that is a whole organism

Pertussis

22

Give an example of a non-replicating vaccine that is a fragmented organism containing their antigenic components

Capsular polysaccharide of streptococcus pneumonia

23

What can some non-replicating vaccines be conjugated with?

Proteins

24

Why are some non-replicating vaccines conjugated with proteins?

To increase the immunogenicity of the vaccine

25

What are toxoids?

Inactivated toxins of a pathogen

26

Are toxoids pathogenic?

No

27

Give two examples of common toxoid vaccines

  • Diptheria 
  • Tetanus

28

What has to be given with vaccines in some scenarios?

Adjuvants

29

Why do vaccines sometimes have to be given with an adjuvant?

To enhance the response towards the vaccine by the immune system to proivde adequate immune cover

30

What is a vaccine adjuvant defined as?

A substance that will enhance the consequence of the immune response when administered simultaneously with the antigen

31

What can vaccine adjuvants be?

  • Inorganic salts
  • Delivery systems to APCs
  • Bacterial products

32

Give an example of a vaccine adjuvant that is an inorganic salt?

Alum

33

Give two examples of vaccine adjuvants that are delivery systems to APCs

  • Liposomes
  • Polymers

34

Give an example of where a vaccine adjuvant that is a bacterial product is used?

In the BCG vaccine

35

How does a vaccine provide long term management?

By generating a memory in the immune system

36

How does vaccination provide a memory to the immune system?

Vaccination leads to B-cell stimulation and T-cell stimulation. B-cell stimulation leads to antibody production, and T-cell stimulation lead to affinity maturation, immunological memory, and cell mediated mechanisms, which all lead to immunity

37

What vaccines to all people in the UK receive?

  • D-T-P
  • HiB
  • Oral Polio
  • Meningococcal C
  • MMR
  • Booster D-T and Polio
  • BCG

38

When is the D-T-P vaccine given?

1st dose at 2 months, 2nd dose at 3 months, 3rd dose at 4th months

39

When is the HiB vaccine given?

  • 1st dose at 2 months
  • 2nd dose at 3 months
  • 3rd dose at 4th months

40

When is the Oral Polio vaccine given?

  • 1st dose at 2 months
  • 2nd dose at 3 months
  • 3rd dose at 4th months

41

What kind of vaccine is D-T-P?

D and T are toxoid, P is killed bacteria

42

What kind of vaccine is HiB?

Conjugated capsular polysaccharide

43

What kind of vaccine is oral polio?

Live attenuated

44

When is the meningococcal C vaccine given?

2-4 months

45

What is the meningococcal C vaccine effective against?

Only A and C strains

46

When is the MMR vaccine given?

12-15 months

47

What kind of vaccine is the MMR?

Live attenuated

48

When is the booster D-T and polio vaccine given?

3-5 years, and 13-18 years

49

When is the BCG vaccine given?

10-14 years

50

What kind of vaccine is BCG?

Live attenuated M. Bovis

51

What is given in addition to the vaccines that all of the population have?

Selective programs for those at risk of certain diseases

52

Give an example of someone who may be at increased risk of certain diseases

A health care worker

53

What do all clinical vaccines carry?

Some degree of risk

54

What is the result of all clinical vaccines carrying some degree of risk?

It is vital with any vaccine that the risks are outweighed by the risk of disease

55

What must happen before vaccines are given?

  • Extensive trials are used for vaccinations
  • Any administrator of a vaccine should check the manufacturer's instructions before administration