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Flashcards in Viruses Deck (121):
1

What class of virus is poliovirus?

Picornavirus

2

Does poliovirus have RNA or DNA?

RNA

3

Is poliovirus enveloped?

No

4

What diseases are caused by poliovirus?

  • Aseptic meningitis
  • Paralytic poliomyelitis

5

How is poliovirus prevented?

Vaccine

6

How is poliovirus treated?

No specific treatment

7

What class of virus is coxsackie and other enteroviruses?

Picornavirus

8

Do coxsackie and other enteroviruses have RNA or DNA?

RNA

9

Are coxsackie and other enteroviruses enveloped?

No

10

What diseases are caused by coxsackie and other enteroviruses?

  • Aseptic meningitis
  • Herpangina
  • Myopericarditis

11

Specficially, what causes myopericarditis?

Coxsackievirus B

12

What is the treatment for coxsackie and other enteroviruses?

No specific treatment

13

How many serotypes are there of rhinoviruses?

More than 100

14

What class of virus are rhinoviruses?

Picornavirus

15

Do rhinoviruses have RNA or DNA?

RNA

16

Are rhinoviruses enveloped?

No

17

What diseases do rhinoviruses cause?

Common cold

18

What is the treatment for rhinoviruses?

No specific treatment

19

What class of virus is arbovirus encephalitis?

Togavirus

20

Does arbovirus encephalitis have RNA or DNA?

RNA

21

Is arbovirus encephalitis enveloped?

Yes

22

What class of virus is rubella?

Togavirus

23

Does rubella have RNA or DNA?

RNA

24

Is rubella enveloped?

Yes

25

What does rubella cause?

Rash (exanthema) in children and pregnant women

26

What is caused when rubella produces a rash in a pregnant woman?

Congenital rubella syndrome

27

How is rubella prevented?

A live attenuated virus vaccine

28

What class of virus is measles?

Paramyoxoviruses

29

Does measles have RNA or DNA?

ENA

30

Is measles enveloped?

Yes

31

What are the symptoms of measles?

  • Fever
  • Nasal discharge
  • Rash
  • Very rarely encephalitis and SSPE

32

How long does measles last for?

10-14 days

33

How are measles and mumps prevented?

Live attenuated virus vaccines

34

What class of virus is respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)?

Paramyoxoviruses

35

Does RSV have RNA or DNA?

RNA

36

Is RSV enveloped?

Yes

37

What diseases are caused by RSV?

  • Broncholitis
  • Pneumonia (in infants)
  • Common cold (in adults)

38

How is RSV treated?

Aerosolised ribavirin

39

When is RSV treated with aerosolised ribavirin?

In infants with severe RSV infections

40

What class of virus is rabies?

Coronaviruses

41

Does rabies have RNA or DNA?

RNA

42

Is rabies enveloped?

Yes

43

What kind of disease is rabies?

A zoonosis

44

How is rabies transmitted?

A bite from an animal

45

How is rabies prevented?

Vaccination of wild and domesticated animals

46

How is rabies treated?

  • Local wound treatment
  • Passive administration of antibody
  • Vaccination

47

What are the strains of influenza?

A, B, and C

48

What class of virus is influenza?

Orthomyxovirus

49

Does influenza have RNA or DNA?

RNA

50

Is influenza enveloped?

Yes

51

What does influenza cause?

Significant mortality in certain individuals

52

In which individuals does influenza cause significant mortality?

  • Elderly
  • Those with underlying cardiopulmonary disease

53

What are the potential complications of influenza?

  • Bacterial superinfections
  • Reye's syndrome

54

How is influenza prevented?

Can be prevented by vaccination

55

What is special about the preparation of the influenza vaccine?

It is prepared annually from strains most likely to emerge in the coming season

56

How is influenza treated?

  • Amantidine
  • Rimantidine
  • Other drugs

57

What strain of influenza is treated with amantidine?

A strains

58

What class of virus is rotavirus?

Reoviruses

59

Does rotavirus have RNA or DNA?

RNA

60

Is rotavirus enveloped?

No

61

What diseases does rotavirus cause?

Diarrhoeal illness

62

What types of rotavirus cause diarrhoeal illness?

A-D

63

When does rotavirus particularly cause diarrhoeal illness?

Infancy and childhood

64

What is rotavirus a major cause of?

Morbidity and mortality in the developing world

65

How can rotavirus diarrhoea be prevented?

  • Improved hygiene.
  • Vaccines in development.

66

How can rotavirus diarrhoea be treated?

Replacing water and electrolytes

67

What class of virus is HIV?

Human retrovirus

68

Does HIV have RNA or DNA?

RNA

69

Is HIV enveloped?

Yes

70

What does HIV infection cause?

Mononucleosis-like seroconversion illness 6-8 weeks after infection, followed by asymptomatic period, which typically lasts 8-10 years, before development of symptoms leading to AIDS

71

How is HIV treated?

  • HAART including RT inhibitors
  • NRT inhibitors
  • Protease inhibitors (PIs)

72

What class of virus is adenovirus?

Adenovirus

73

Do adenovirus have RNA or DNA?

DNA

74

Are adenoviruses enveloped?

No

75

What diseases do adenoviruses cause?

  • Pharyngoconjunctival fever
  • Epidemics of acute respiratory disease
  • Intestinal illness
  • Keratoconjunctivitis

76

Give an example of an acute respiratory disease caused by adenovirus

Pneumonia

77

What intestinal illnesses can be caused by adenoviruses?

  • Mesenteric adenitis
  •  Intususseption

78

How is adenovirus prevented?

Live oral vaccine

79

Who has the live oral vaccine to adenovirus been used in?

US military troops

80

How is adenovirus treated?

No specific treatment

81

What class of virus is papillamovirus?

Papovaviruses

82

Do papillamoviruses have RNA or DNA?

DNA

83

Are papillamovirses enveloped?

No

84

What diseases does papillimoviruses cause?

Skin and genital warts

85

What can sexually transmitted warts cause in children?

Laryngeal papilloma

86

How are children infected with papillamovirus?

Via the birth canal

87

What are some types of papillamovirus strongly associated with?

Genital cancer, particularly carcinoma of the cervix

88

What types of papillamovirus are strongly associated with genital cancer?

  • HPV16
  • HPV18

89

How are papillamovirus infections treated?

  • No effective antivirals or vaccines available.
  • Skin warts can be destroyed by freezing
  • Areas of cervical dysplasia (genital warts) by laser treatment

90

How can skin warts be frozen?

Using liquid nitrogen

91

What class of virus is herpes simplex?

Herpesvirus

92

Does herpes simplex have RNA or DNA?

DNA

93

Is herpes simplex enveloped?

Yes

94

How is herpes simplex treated?

  • Aciclovir
  • Ganciclovir

95

What types of herpes simplex are treated with aciclovir?

  • HSV
  • VZV

96

What types of herpes simplex are treated with ganciclovir?

CMV

97

How is herpes simplex prevented?

Varicella-zoster immunoglobulin (VZIG)

98

When is VZIG used?

When immunocompromised patients are exposed to infection

99

What class of virus is Epstein Barr?

Herpesvirus

100

Does Epstein Barr have RNA or DNA?

DNA

101

Is Epstein Barr enveloped?

Yes

102

What does Epstein Barr cause?

  • Infectious mononucleosis (glandular fever)
  • Burkitts lymphoma
  • Nasopharyngeal carcinoma

103

What class of virus is cytomegalocirus (CMV)?

Herpesvirus

104

Does CMV have RNA or DNA?

DNA

105

Is CMV enveloped?

Yes

106

What does CMV cause?

  • Mononucleosis
  • Pneumonitis

107

What class of virus is hepatitis A?

Picornavirus

108

Does hepatitis A have RNA or DNA?

RNA

109

Is hepatitis A enveloped?

No

110

What does hepatitis A cause?

Hepatitis with a short incubation period

111

What is the average incubation period for hepatitis A?

4 weeks

112

What is the prognosis of hepatitis A?

  • Condition generally self limiting 
  • About 0.1% of all cases are fatal

113

What causes fatality in hepatitis A?

Liver failure

114

How long does hepatitis A usually last for?

4 weeks

115

Is there chronic infection with hepatitis A?

No

116

How is hepatitis A prevented?

  • Improved hygiene
  • Human normal immunoglobulin (HNIG)
  • Vaccine

117

What class of virus is hepatitis B?

Falviviruses

118

Does hepatitis C have RNA or DNA?

RNA

119

Is hepatitis C enveloped?

Yes

120

Does smallpox have RNA or DNA?

DNA

121

Is smallpox enveloped?

Yes