Flashcards in Immunity (exam 1) Deck (103):
What is innate immune system?
Born with, general responses, non-specific
What is the adaptive immune system?
Changes with us due to exposure, build and change, MEMORY,
What are the 2 arms of the adaptive immune system
T-cells (cell mediated)
Antibody mediated (B-cells, humoral immunity)
What is the first line of defense of the immune system?
Barriers (physical and chemical)
Ex: skin, mucous membranes, saliva, tears, sweat, stomach acid
What is the second line of defense of the immune system?
Inflammation, rapid and nonspecific
What is the third line of defense of the immune system?
Adaptive immune system
T and B cells
What is the adaptive immune system in response to?
Antigen exposure, first exposure takes significant time to build, memory for the rest
What effects does inflammation have on the cellular level?
Vasodilation: makes blood vessels bigger
Increased capillary permeability: allows more across the vessels
What are the classsic symptoms of inflammation?
A loss of function
Why is inflammation physiologic?
Good and normal response, helps stabilize tissues to stop infection and repair
Why is inflammation pathologic?
Hard to turn off and regulate, screw up fluid balances (edema), stresses system (BP, heart, make you immuno supressed)
What are leukocytes divided into?
Granulocytes and agranulocytes
What part of the immune system are granulocytes a part of?
Innate immune system
What part of the immune system are agranulocytes a part of?
Adaptive immune system
What cells make up granulocytes?
Where are basophils located?
Basophils in the blood
Mast cells are the basophils that are found in the tissue
What do basophils and mast cells do?
Pro inflammatory, release histamine and hepanin
What do eosinophils do?
Anti-inflammatory and anti-parasitic, regulatory, release histaminase
What do neutrophils do?
1st responder to injury, most abundant, primary phagocyte, ingesting and destroying
What cells are phagocytes?
Monos and macros
What is diapedesis?
Leave the blood and go into the tissues
What cells are capable of diapedesis?
Monos and macros
What cells make up the agranulocytes?
T and B cells
Monocytes and Macrophages
Where are monocytes located?
In the blood
Where are macrophages located?
In the tissue
Are T and B cells specific or non specific?
Are natural killers specific or non specific?
What is the order of events upon an injury?
Neutrophils respond and phagocytose
Activate mast cells and basophils
Attract other WBC (neutros, eos, macros)
Macros replace neutros
What 2 processes do mast cells go through?
What occurs during degranulation?
1st step after mast cell activation
Histamine release= vascular effects (vasodilation, increased capillary permeability)
Chemotaxis of more neutros (phagocytosis)
Chemotaxis of more eos (regulate inflammatory process)
What occurs during synthesis?
2nd step after mast cell activation
Platelet activating factors (causes clotting)
Activation of the arachidonic acid:
Vascular effects via leukotrienes
Vascular effects and pain via prostaglandins
What is produced during the arachidonic acid pathway?
What do leukotrienes do?
Bring in WBCs, increase inflammation
What do thromboxanes do?
What do prostacyclins do?
Regulate leukotrienes (decrease inflammation), thromboxanes (decrease clotting), prostaglandins (reduce pain)
What do prostaglandins do?
Increase inflammation and pain
What is an APC and what do they do?
Antigen Presenting Cell
Phagocytic cell, ingests and breaks down, presents to B cells to induce better immune response
What is phagocytosis?
Process by which a cell ingests and disposes of foreign material
What is the primary function of natural killer cells?
Kill viruses, kill abnormal host cells (cancer or tumor cells)
What are cytokines?
Cell signaling, help facilitate immune system
What are pyrogens?
Interleukins, induce fever
What are interferons?
cell signaling for viral infections, warn neighbors that a virus is presnet
What are chemokines?
Chemotactic cytokines, speacial kind of cytokines, induce leukocyte chemotaxis
What are the 3 plasma protein systems?
What does the complement system do?
Activates innate and adaptive immune systems, protein cascades
What comes out of the complement system?
Opsonination: tag something for destruction
Chemotactic factors of WBCs
Produce membrane attack complex to cause lysis
What does the coagulation system do?
Causes us to clot
What does the kinin system do?
Increases pain and inflammation
List and describe the exudative fluids of inflammation
Serous: watery, early
Fibrous: thick, clotted (pick scab and its amberous/ sticky)
Purulent: bacterial infection, pus, smells bad
What is an endogenous fever?
Fever caused from us and what we release
What is an exogenous fever?
Fever caused by the pathogens
How long must inflammation last to be considered chronic?
Lasting longer than 2 weeks
What are the 3 most important things to remember about Adaptive Immunity that separates it from all other divisions of the immune system?
Memory (of antigen)
In regards to immunity what does active mean?
Acquired, activate T and B cells, produce memory
In regards to immunity what does passive mean?
Just straight antibodies, do not activate T and B cells, no memory
In regards to immunity what does natural mean?
Get exposed naturally through the environment
In regards to immunity what does artificial mean?
Get exposed through injections
Getting just antibodies through a natural means, to fetus through the placenta, to a newborn through breastmilk
Take antibodies and inject into someone, ebola now, rabies, anti-venoms
Environmental exposed, activate T and B cells, produce memory
Injection exposure, activate T and B cells, produce memory, true vaccinations
What are antigens?
Foreign or nonself particles/ proteins
What are antibodies?
Proteins produced by immune system to fight antigens, produced by plasma (B) cells
What is an epitote?
Region on antigen that is recognized, part of antigen we use for recognition and binding
What is tolerance in reference to immunity?
Us not killing our own cells, learned in the thymus, lose tolerance and get autoimmunity
What do cytotoxic cells target?
Virus infected cells, cancer (tumor cells)
Like natural killer cells but very specific
Where are T and B cells produced? Where do they mature?
T and B cells are produced in bone marrow
B cells mature in bone marrow
T cells mature in thymus
What activates B and T cells
CD4 (helper T's) or APCs
When a B cell is activated what cells are produced?
Plasma cell (secrete specific antibodies to antigen)
When a T cell is activated what cells are produced?
Cytotoxic T cells (poke holes and cause lysis by perferins)
Helper T cells (stimulate other T or B cells)
Suppressory T cells (turn down immune response, take out of it)
What is clonal diversity?
Come from same place, produce immunocompetent T and B cells with different receptors
What is clonal selection?
When we are exposed to antigen, specific cell is selected
What is MHC and what do they do?
Major Histocompatibility Complex, recognize self vs nonself, flagpoles to present cell
What are CD8 cells?
Cytotoxic cells, cancer, virally infected cells, look for self cells,
What class of MHC do CD8 bind with?
CD8 binds with MHC class 1
Nucleated cells, basically everything except RBCs
What are CD4 cells?
Helper T cells, communicate with APCs and dedritic cells
What class of MHC do CD4 bind with?
CD4 binds with MHC class 2
What does CD mean?
Cluster of differentiation
Aids in the function of the immune cells
What are the 5 antibodies we discussed?
What is the most abundant antibody?
What is the first antibody produced?
What antibody is associated with allergic responses?
Most abundant, transported across the placenta (natural passive), last in blood a while
Largest, first produced antibody, clinically indicative antibody for current infections
Secretions (tears, saliva, breast milk
Allergic responses, parasite infections, stimulates mast cell degeneration (inflammation)
What are the direct functional effects of antibodies?
Neutralization (of antigen, bind and deactivate)
Agglutination (form clumps for immune system to find easier)
Percipitation (fall out of solution)
What are the indirect functional effects of antibodies?
Opsonization (tag for destruction)
Complement (activated, assist innate and adaptive)
What is active immunity?
Antibodies or T cells produced after either a natural exposure to an antigen or after immunization
What is passive immunity?
Preformed Ab or T lymphocytes are transerred from a donor to a recipient
What antibody is most significant in passive immunity of the fetus?
IgG, can cross placenta
What antibody is most significant in passive immunity of a new born and most significant in protection from UTIs?
What are Type 1 hypersensitivities?
Cells involved= mast cells
Time after 1st exposure= immediate, 15-30 min post exposure
Examples= allergic asthma, hay fever
What are Type 2 hypersensitivities?
Ab= IgM, IgG
Cells involved= phagocytes
Time after 1st exposure= hours, days
Examples= graves disease, RA, erythroblastosis, good pasture syndrome
What are Type 3 hypersensitivities?
Ab= any (IgG, IgM, IgA, IgD, IgE)
Cells involved= phagocytes (neutros, macros)
Time after 1st exposure= days to months
Examples= systemic lupus, erythematosus, farmers lung, serum sickness
What are Type 4 hypersensitivities?
Cells involved= cytotoxic T cells
Time after 1st exposure= years
Examples= poison ivy, celiac, latex sensitivity
Exotoxin (Bacterial Infection)
Protrin released during bacterial growth, specific effects, immunogenic antibodies
Endotoxin (Bacterial Infection)
Contained within the cell walls of gram negative bacteria, lysis/ destruction.
Presence of bacteria in the blood, usually gram negative bacteria, septic shock caused by endotoxins
Obligate intracellular parasites: dependent on host cell, no metabolism, permissive host cell, usually a self-limiting infection (spread cell to cell)
Why are viral infections hard to treat?
They use our systems so to attack and kill them we are killing out own cells
Why are fungal infections hard to treat?
They are the closest and have the most similarities to humans