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Flashcards in Immunity (exam 1) Deck (103):
1

What is innate immune system?

Born with, general responses, non-specific

2

What is the adaptive immune system?

Changes with us due to exposure, build and change, MEMORY,

3

What are the 2 arms of the adaptive immune system

T-cells (cell mediated)
Antibody mediated (B-cells, humoral immunity)

4

What is the first line of defense of the immune system?

Barriers (physical and chemical)
Ex: skin, mucous membranes, saliva, tears, sweat, stomach acid

5

What is the second line of defense of the immune system?

Inflammation, rapid and nonspecific

6

What is the third line of defense of the immune system?

Adaptive immune system
T and B cells

7

What is the adaptive immune system in response to?

Antigen exposure, first exposure takes significant time to build, memory for the rest

8

What effects does inflammation have on the cellular level?

Vasodilation: makes blood vessels bigger
Increased capillary permeability: allows more across the vessels

9

What are the classsic symptoms of inflammation?

Swelling
Heat
A loss of function
Redness
Pain

10

Why is inflammation physiologic?

Good and normal response, helps stabilize tissues to stop infection and repair

11

Why is inflammation pathologic?

Hard to turn off and regulate, screw up fluid balances (edema), stresses system (BP, heart, make you immuno supressed)

12

What are leukocytes divided into?

Granulocytes and agranulocytes

13

What part of the immune system are granulocytes a part of?

Innate immune system

14

What part of the immune system are agranulocytes a part of?

Adaptive immune system

15

What cells make up granulocytes?

Basophils
Eosinophils
Neutrophils

16

Where are basophils located?

Basophils in the blood
Mast cells are the basophils that are found in the tissue

17

What do basophils and mast cells do?

Pro inflammatory, release histamine and hepanin

18

What do eosinophils do?

Anti-inflammatory and anti-parasitic, regulatory, release histaminase

19

What do neutrophils do?

1st responder to injury, most abundant, primary phagocyte, ingesting and destroying

20

What cells are phagocytes?

Monos and macros
Neutrophils

21

What is diapedesis?

Leave the blood and go into the tissues

22

What cells are capable of diapedesis?

Monos and macros
Eosinophils
Neutrophils

23

What cells make up the agranulocytes?

T and B cells
Natural Killers
Monocytes and Macrophages

24

Where are monocytes located?

In the blood

25

Where are macrophages located?

In the tissue

26

Are T and B cells specific or non specific?

Specific

27

Are natural killers specific or non specific?

Non specific

28

What is the order of events upon an injury?

Neutrophils respond and phagocytose
Activate mast cells and basophils
Inflammation begins
Attract other WBC (neutros, eos, macros)
Macros replace neutros

29

What 2 processes do mast cells go through?

Degranulation
Synthesis

30

What occurs during degranulation?

1st step after mast cell activation
Histamine release= vascular effects (vasodilation, increased capillary permeability)
Chemotaxis of more neutros (phagocytosis)
Chemotaxis of more eos (regulate inflammatory process)

31

What occurs during synthesis?

2nd step after mast cell activation
Platelet activating factors (causes clotting)
Activation of the arachidonic acid:
Vascular effects via leukotrienes
Vascular effects and pain via prostaglandins

32

What is produced during the arachidonic acid pathway?

Leukotrienes
Thromboxanes
Prostacyclin
Prostaglandins

33

What do leukotrienes do?

Bring in WBCs, increase inflammation

34

What do thromboxanes do?

Increase clotting

35

What do prostacyclins do?

Regulate leukotrienes (decrease inflammation), thromboxanes (decrease clotting), prostaglandins (reduce pain)

36

What do prostaglandins do?

Increase inflammation and pain

37

What is an APC and what do they do?

Antigen Presenting Cell
Phagocytic cell, ingests and breaks down, presents to B cells to induce better immune response

38

What is phagocytosis?

Process by which a cell ingests and disposes of foreign material

39

What is the primary function of natural killer cells?

Kill viruses, kill abnormal host cells (cancer or tumor cells)

40

What are cytokines?

Cell signaling, help facilitate immune system

41

What are pyrogens?

Interleukins, induce fever

42

What are interferons?

cell signaling for viral infections, warn neighbors that a virus is presnet

43

What are chemokines?

Chemotactic cytokines, speacial kind of cytokines, induce leukocyte chemotaxis

44

What are the 3 plasma protein systems?

Complement System
Coagulation System
Kinin System

45

What does the complement system do?

Activates innate and adaptive immune systems, protein cascades

46

What comes out of the complement system?

Opsonination: tag something for destruction
Chemotactic factors of WBCs
Produce membrane attack complex to cause lysis

47

What does the coagulation system do?

Causes us to clot

48

What does the kinin system do?

Increases pain and inflammation

49

List and describe the exudative fluids of inflammation

Serous: watery, early
Fibrous: thick, clotted (pick scab and its amberous/ sticky)
Purulent: bacterial infection, pus, smells bad
Hemorrhagic: blood

50

What is an endogenous fever?

Fever caused from us and what we release

51

What is an exogenous fever?

Fever caused by the pathogens

52

How long must inflammation last to be considered chronic?

Lasting longer than 2 weeks

53

What are the 3 most important things to remember about Adaptive Immunity that separates it from all other divisions of the immune system?

Memory (of antigen)
Specificity
Antibodies

54

In regards to immunity what does active mean?

Acquired, activate T and B cells, produce memory

55

In regards to immunity what does passive mean?

Just straight antibodies, do not activate T and B cells, no memory

56

In regards to immunity what does natural mean?

Get exposed naturally through the environment

57

In regards to immunity what does artificial mean?

Get exposed through injections

58

Natural passive

Getting just antibodies through a natural means, to fetus through the placenta, to a newborn through breastmilk

59

Artificial passive

Take antibodies and inject into someone, ebola now, rabies, anti-venoms

60

Natural active

Environmental exposed, activate T and B cells, produce memory

61

Artificial active

Injection exposure, activate T and B cells, produce memory, true vaccinations

62

What are antigens?

Foreign or nonself particles/ proteins

63

What are antibodies?

Proteins produced by immune system to fight antigens, produced by plasma (B) cells

64

What is an epitote?

Region on antigen that is recognized, part of antigen we use for recognition and binding

65

What is tolerance in reference to immunity?

Us not killing our own cells, learned in the thymus, lose tolerance and get autoimmunity

66

What do cytotoxic cells target?

Virus infected cells, cancer (tumor cells)
Like natural killer cells but very specific

67

Where are T and B cells produced? Where do they mature?

T and B cells are produced in bone marrow
B cells mature in bone marrow
T cells mature in thymus

68

What activates B and T cells

CD4 (helper T's) or APCs

69

When a B cell is activated what cells are produced?

Memory cell
Plasma cell (secrete specific antibodies to antigen)

70

When a T cell is activated what cells are produced?

Memory cell
Cytotoxic T cells (poke holes and cause lysis by perferins)
Helper T cells (stimulate other T or B cells)
Suppressory T cells (turn down immune response, take out of it)

71

What is clonal diversity?

Come from same place, produce immunocompetent T and B cells with different receptors

72

What is clonal selection?

When we are exposed to antigen, specific cell is selected

73

What is MHC and what do they do?

Major Histocompatibility Complex, recognize self vs nonself, flagpoles to present cell

74

What are CD8 cells?

Cytotoxic cells, cancer, virally infected cells, look for self cells,

75

What class of MHC do CD8 bind with?

CD8 binds with MHC class 1
Nucleated cells, basically everything except RBCs

76

What are CD4 cells?

Helper T cells, communicate with APCs and dedritic cells

77

What class of MHC do CD4 bind with?

CD4 binds with MHC class 2

78

What does CD mean?

Cluster of differentiation
Aids in the function of the immune cells

79

What are the 5 antibodies we discussed?

IgG
IgM
IgA
IgD
IgE

80

What is the most abundant antibody?

IgG

81

What is the first antibody produced?

IgM

82

What antibody is associated with allergic responses?

IgE

83

IgG

Most abundant, transported across the placenta (natural passive), last in blood a while

84

IgM

Largest, first produced antibody, clinically indicative antibody for current infections

85

IgA

Secretions (tears, saliva, breast milk

86

IgE

Allergic responses, parasite infections, stimulates mast cell degeneration (inflammation)

87

What are the direct functional effects of antibodies?

Neutralization (of antigen, bind and deactivate)
Agglutination (form clumps for immune system to find easier)
Percipitation (fall out of solution)

88

What are the indirect functional effects of antibodies?

Opsonization (tag for destruction)
Complement (activated, assist innate and adaptive)

89

What is active immunity?

Antibodies or T cells produced after either a natural exposure to an antigen or after immunization

90

What is passive immunity?

Preformed Ab or T lymphocytes are transerred from a donor to a recipient

91

What antibody is most significant in passive immunity of the fetus?

IgG, can cross placenta

92

What antibody is most significant in passive immunity of a new born and most significant in protection from UTIs?

IgA, secretions

93

What are Type 1 hypersensitivities?

Anaphylaxis/ Allergy
Ab= IgE
Cells involved= mast cells
Time after 1st exposure= immediate, 15-30 min post exposure
Examples= allergic asthma, hay fever

94

What are Type 2 hypersensitivities?

Cytotoxic
Ab= IgM, IgG
Cells involved= phagocytes
Time after 1st exposure= hours, days
Examples= graves disease, RA, erythroblastosis, good pasture syndrome

95

What are Type 3 hypersensitivities?

Complex Mediated
Ab= any (IgG, IgM, IgA, IgD, IgE)
Cells involved= phagocytes (neutros, macros)
Time after 1st exposure= days to months
Examples= systemic lupus, erythematosus, farmers lung, serum sickness

96

What are Type 4 hypersensitivities?

Delayed
Ab= none
Cells involved= cytotoxic T cells
Time after 1st exposure= years
Examples= poison ivy, celiac, latex sensitivity

97

Exotoxin (Bacterial Infection)

Protrin released during bacterial growth, specific effects, immunogenic antibodies

98

Endotoxin (Bacterial Infection)

Contained within the cell walls of gram negative bacteria, lysis/ destruction.

99

Bacteremia- Septicemia

Presence of bacteria in the blood, usually gram negative bacteria, septic shock caused by endotoxins

100

Viral Infection

Obligate intracellular parasites: dependent on host cell, no metabolism, permissive host cell, usually a self-limiting infection (spread cell to cell)

101

Why are viral infections hard to treat?

They use our systems so to attack and kill them we are killing out own cells

102

Why are fungal infections hard to treat?

They are the closest and have the most similarities to humans

103

What is released under times of infection, disease, or any physiologic stress?

Cortisol is released from the adrenal gland (adrenal cortex)