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Flashcards in Nervous System (exam 2) Deck (67):
1

What are the 3 basic functions of the nervous system?

Detect
Evaluate
Respond

2

What makes up the CNS?

Spinal Cord
Brain

3

What function of the nervous system is carried out by the CNS?

Evaluation

4

What is the PNS divided into?

Autonomic Nervous System
Somatic Nervous System

5

What is the ANS divided into?

Sympathetic Nervous System
Parasympathetic Nervous System

6

What does the Sympathetic Nervous System do?

Fight or Flight

7

What does the Parasympathetic Nervous System do?

Rest and Digest
Feed and Breed

8

What does the Somatic Nervous System do?

Voluntary control of the skeletal muscle

9

What does the ANS do?

Involuntary control of smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, glands

10

How many cranial nerves are there?

12

11

How many spinal nerves are there?

31

12

SAID

Sensory
Afferent
In
Dorsally

13

MOVE

Motor
Out of spinal cord
Ventrally and
Efferent

14

What is the afferent pathway?

Sensory
Ascending

15

What is the efferent pathway?

Motor
Descending

16

What part of the neuron receives information?

Dendrite

17

What part of the information sends information?

Axon

18

What speeds up signal transmission on the neuron?

Myelination

19

What is the Axon Hillock?

Gatekeeper
AP begins here

20

Where is the Grey matter in spinal cord?

Middle

21

Where is the Grey matter in brain?

Outside of brain

22

Where is the White matter in the spinal cord?

Outside of cord

23

Where is the White matter in the brain?

Inside of brain

24

What and where are Oligodendrocytes?

CNS
Myelinate central neurons

25

What and where are Schwann cells?

PNS
Myelinate peripheral neurons

26

What and where are Ependymal cells?

Make CSF from blood plasma
Ciliated and move CSF
In CNS

27

What and where are Astrocytes?

In CNS
Blood brain barrier

28

What and where are Microglia?

In CNS
Macrophages of CNS

29

What are Nodes on Ranvier and what do they do?

Spaces in between myelin
Allow the signal to jump form node to node speeding up conduction

30

What is the region between adjacent neurons?

Synapse

31

What transmits impulses across the synapse?

Neurotransmitters

32

What is a neuromuscular junction?

Synapse of neuron and skeletal muscle

33

What is the outer most layer of meninges?

Dura mater

34

What is the middle layer of the meninges?

Arachnoid Mater

35

What is the inner most layer of the meninges?

Pia mater

36

What is the space between the pia and arachnoid mater?

Subarachnoid space
CSF here

37

What is the space between the dura and arachnoid mater/

Subdural space

38

Where is the CSF made?

At choroid plexus

39

What are the bumps of brain called?

Gyrus
Gyri

40

What are the grooves of brain called?

Sulcus
Sulci

41

What does the central sulcus separate

Sensory and motor

42

What is a fissure in brain?

Real deep groove

43

What is the corpus collosum?

Connection/ Communication between right and left hemispheres

44

What is the frontal lobe responsible for?

Memory
Movement

45

What is the temporal lobe responsible for?

Hearing
Speech

46

What is the brain stem responsible for?

Blood pressure
Breathing
Consciousness
Heartbeat

47

What is the cerebellum responsible for?

Balance
Coordination

48

What is the occipital lobe responsible for?

Vision

49

What is the parietal lobe responsible for?

Language
Reading

50

What is involved in a reflex arc?

Receptor
Afferent neuron
Efferent neuron
Interneuron
Effector (muscle)

51

How many cervical vertebrae are there?

7

52

How many thoracic vertebrae are there?

12

53

How many lumber vertebrae are there?

5

54

How many sacral vertebrae are there?

4-5

55

How many coccyx vertebrae are there?

3-4

56

Is the dorsal nerve root motor or sensory?

Sensory

57

Is the ventral nerve root motor or sensory?

Motor

58

What physiologic changes occur during fight or flight?

Accelerates heart rate
Constricts blood vessels to smooth muscle (vasoconstriction)
Dilates blood vessels to skeletal muscle (vasodilation)
Decreases GI movement (decrease peristalsis)
Dilation of pupil (mydriasis)
Effects on glands: Increases epinephrine, sweat secretion and decreases digestive secretion

59

What physiologic changes occur during rest or digest?

Slows heartbeat
NO effect on blood vessels to smooth muscle
NO effect on blood vessels to skeletal muscle
Increases peristalsis (digestion)
Contraction of pupil (miosis)
Effects on glands: No effect on adrenal medulla or sweat glands, but increases secretion of digestive enzymes

60

How many neurons are involved in ANS transmission?

2

61

How many neurons are involved in Somatic Nervous System transmission?

1

62

What kind of pre and post ganglionic neurons are in Sympathetic Nervous System? What do they secrete?

Short Pre (Ach: Acetylcholine)
Long Post (Norepinephrine or Epinephrine)

63

What kind of pre and post ganglionic neurons are in Parasympathetic Nervous System? What do they secrete?

Long Pre (Ach: Acetylcholine)
Short Post (Ach: Acetylcholine)

64

What neurotransmitter is released in somatic nervous system?

Ach: Acetylcholine

65

What nerve injuries can regenerate and way?

Nerve injuries in PNS (Schwann cells) can regenerate
Oligodentrocytes scar

66

Where are the rods located for vision? What do they pick up?

Periphery
Monochromatic image and image quality
Black and white

67

Where are the cones located for vision? What do they pick up?

Central vision
Detailed images
Color images