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Year 2 EMS MoD > Immunology > Flashcards

Flashcards in Immunology Deck (96)
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1

What are the 3 parts of the traditional innate immune system?

1) Barrier and chemical mechanisms - complement system
2) PRR - pattern recognition receptors
3) Cellular component

2

What are the 5 major components of the innate immune system?

1) Pattern recognition receptors
2) Antimicrobial peptides
3) Cells
4) Complement components
5) Cytokines

3

What are the 2 parts to the adaptive immune system?

1) Humoral - Ab
2) Cellular - B and T lymphocytes

4

What are the 5 PRRs?

1) Toll-like receptors
2) NOD-like receptors
3) Rigl-like receptors
4) C-type lectins
5) Scavenger receptors

5

What are the 8 types of cell of the innate immune system?

1) Macrohpages
2) Dendritic cells
3) NK cells
4) Neutrophils
5) Eosinophils
6) Mast cells
7) Basophils
8) Epithelial cells

6

What is meant by pattern recognition receptors?

Its an inclusive term for antigen recognition receptors in the innate immune system

7

What are 2 things that PRRs commonly recognise?

Pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMPs)
Danger associated molecular patterns (DAMPs)

8

Is there diversity of type in PRRs?

Yes, but each immune cell carries identical receptor of a given type

9

What are the 2 broad groups of PRRs?

1) Cell surface (transmembrane) and intracellular receptors - TLRs, NLRs, RLRs, CLRs
2) Fluid-phase soluble molecules

10

Which 2 PRRs recognise LPS?

TLR4
CD14

11

Which 2 PRRs recognise Triacylated lipopeptides?

1) TLR 1
2) TLR 2

12

Which 2 PRRs recognise diacylated lipopetides?

1) TLR 2
2) TLR 6

13

Which PRR recognises flagellin?

TLR 5

14

Which cytokine is the first produced in response to infection?

IL1

15

Which intracellular PRR recognises single stranded DNA released by viruses when they begin to multiply in a cell?

TLR 9

16

What is the name of the fluid phase recognition molecules?

Collectins

17

Give 2 examples of collectins (fluid phase recognition molecules)?

1) Mannan-binding lectin
2) Surfactant protein A&D

18

What do collectins recognise?

Microbial complex carbohydrates

19

How do collectins bind to their substrate?

Bind via carbohydrate recognition domains (CRDs)

20

What 2 roles do collectins have once they've bound to their substrate?

1) Neutralisation of a pathogen
2) Recruitment of adaptive response

21

What do PRRs do once they have bound to their substrate?

Starts a cascade and cytokines are released to signal to the adaptive immune and innate immune system

22

IL1 is a cytokine released from what cells (3) and what are its 3 targets and thus effects?

Released from
macrophages, endothelia and epithelia
Effects
Endothelia - increased coagulation and inflammation
Hepatocytes - leads to increased acute phase proteins
Hypothalamus - increased fever

23

TNF is released from what cells 2, has what targets and thus what effects 4?

Released from
Macrophages and T lymphocytes
Targets and effects
Endothelia - increased coagulation and inflammation
Hepatocytes - increased acute phase proteins
Neutrophils - increased activation
Hypothalamus- increased fever

24

IL6 is released from what cells 3, has what targets and what effects 2?

Released from
Macrophages and T lymphocytes and endothelia
Targets and effects
Hepatocytes - increased acute phase proteins
B lymphocytes - increased proliferation

25

IL23 is released from what cells 2, has what targets and thus what effects 1?

Released from
macrophages, dendritic cells
Targets and effects
T lymphocytes - increased production IL17

26

What is the major role of macrophages in innate immunity? 4

1) Phagocytose and kill bacteria
2) Produce antimicrobial peptides
3) Bind LPS
4) Produce inflammatory cytokines

27

What is the major role of plasmacytoid dendritic cells in innate immunity? 1

1) Produce large amounts of interferon which has antitumour and antiviral activity

28

What is the major role of myeloid dendritic cells in innate immunity? 1

1) Strong producers of IL 12 and IL 10

29

Where are plasmacytoid dendritic cells found in the body? 2

T cell zones of lymphoid organs
Circulate in the blood

30

Where are myeloid dendritic cells found in the body? 4

T cell zones of lymphoid organs
Interstices of lung heart and kidney
Skin epithelia and thymic medulla
Circulate in blood