Flashcards in Immunology Lecture 14:15. Deck (24):
compound that increases the immunogenicity of an antigen (most common is aluminum salt)
use of immune serum to give immediate resistance to an infection (used in rabies and tetanus)
immunizing with antigens to induce an immune response to a pathogen. patient’s body makes long term memory
weakened virus that can replicate to a limited extent (MMR vaccine)
enough people are immunized so protects the spread of infection
Diphtheria/pertussis/tetanus vaccine (DPT)
used to use whole cell but now use acellular so boosters are needed
almost irradicated now - use inactivated polio - unless immunosuppressed then use innactivated
live attenuated - must give at least 1 year of age because mother’s antibodies will protect otherwise
most likely a problem with pregnant women because of birth defects
immunoglobulin if you have not had the vaccine
protects against type 16 & 18 because most common with cervical cancer
also DiGeorge Syndrome - lack of thymus as a result of 3rd and 4th pharyngeal pouches and 21q11.2 deletion
What are the most common immunodeficiencies?
humoral - esp. IgA
What is the most important immune cell?
neutrophils - no neutrophils = real issue
X linked - need bone marrow transplant - decreased lymphocytes (B, T, and NK cells)
What is the major defect in SCIDS?
gamma chain defect in receptor, lose IL-2, IL-4, IL-7, etc
What is the main marker missing with humoral immunodeficiency?
absence of B cells because of CD40L deficiency - plenty of IgM but lack IgG - no germinal centers in lymph nodes
What are the receptors missing in X-linked agammaglobulinemia? What is the effect?
CD40-CD40L, B and activated macrophages affected
2/3 asymptomatic, look at family history
What are the most common infections with complement deficiency?
meningitis and neisseria
infections only controlled by activated macrophages - have unusual infections and usual infection with uncommon course
What are patients with phagocyte deficiency most vulnerable to?
catalase + bacteria - breaks down peroxide produced by neutrophils, while enough peroxide is produced for catalase - bacteria