Immunology Lecture 14:15. Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Immunology Lecture 14:15. Deck (24):
1

adjuvent

compound that increases the immunogenicity of an antigen (most common is aluminum salt)

2

passive immunization

use of immune serum to give immediate resistance to an infection (used in rabies and tetanus)

3

active immunization

immunizing with antigens to induce an immune response to a pathogen. patient’s body makes long term memory

4

live attenuated

weakened virus that can replicate to a limited extent (MMR vaccine)

5

herd immunity

enough people are immunized so protects the spread of infection

6

Diphtheria/pertussis/tetanus vaccine (DPT)

used to use whole cell but now use acellular so boosters are needed

7

polio

almost irradicated now - use inactivated polio - unless immunosuppressed then use innactivated

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MMR

live attenuated - must give at least 1 year of age because mother’s antibodies will protect otherwise

9

rubella

most likely a problem with pregnant women because of birth defects

10

rabies

immunoglobulin if you have not had the vaccine

11

HPV vaccine

protects against type 16 & 18 because most common with cervical cancer

12

Cellular Immunodeficiency

also DiGeorge Syndrome - lack of thymus as a result of 3rd and 4th pharyngeal pouches and 21q11.2 deletion

13

What are the most common immunodeficiencies?

humoral - esp. IgA

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What is the most important immune cell?

neutrophils - no neutrophils = real issue

15

SCIDS

X linked - need bone marrow transplant - decreased lymphocytes (B, T, and NK cells)

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What is the major defect in SCIDS?

gamma chain defect in receptor, lose IL-2, IL-4, IL-7, etc

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What is the main marker missing with humoral immunodeficiency?

CD19

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X-linked agammagobulinemia

absence of B cells because of CD40L deficiency - plenty of IgM but lack IgG - no germinal centers in lymph nodes

19

What are the receptors missing in X-linked agammaglobulinemia? What is the effect?

CD40-CD40L, B and activated macrophages affected

20

IgA deficiency

2/3 asymptomatic, look at family history

21

What are the most common infections with complement deficiency?

meningitis and neisseria

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Phagocyte deficiency

infections only controlled by activated macrophages - have unusual infections and usual infection with uncommon course

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What are patients with phagocyte deficiency most vulnerable to?

catalase + bacteria - breaks down peroxide produced by neutrophils, while enough peroxide is produced for catalase - bacteria

24

No C3

bacterial infections