Flashcards in Micro poop 1. Deck (32):
infecting agent goes from infected person to another person
contaminated equipment/inanimate objects
airborne or droplet
What is the difficulty with eliminating MRSA?
can survive for 6-12 weeks on inanimate objects
What are standard precautions?
clean hands, covering mouth and nose when coughing/sneezing, wear gown/glove if soiling likely
What are respiratory precautions?
use of N95 mask and gown, private negative pressure room, patients wear surgical mask
When are respiratory precautions used? (examples)
TB, chickenpox, shingles, measles, flu
What are droplet precautions?
transmitted when patient coughs, sneezes, talks, and during procedures. wear surgical masks, gown, frequent hand washing
When are droplet precautions used?
bacterial meningitis, flu, pertussis (whopping cough), mumps
What are contact precautions?
use of gowns, gloves, alcohol based hand washing
When are contact precautions used?
when there will be direct and/or indirect contact - multi-drug resistant organisms (MRSA), rotavirus, scabies, wounds, abscesses with unconfined drainage
What are contact PLUS precautions?
hand washing must be done with soap and water - not alcohol based rub**, room must be disinfected with bleach
When are contact PLUS precautions used?
C-diff, acute diarrhea, norovirus, rotavirus, campylobacter, cryptosporidium, salmonella, shigella
When is reverse isolation used?
a method ot prevent a patient in a compromised health situation from being contaminated by other people or objects - individuals must wear surgical mask, gloves, gown
What is the most resistant to antiseptics and disinfectants
bacterial spores, followed by TB, then non-lipid viruses (polio), fungi, vegetative bacteria (salmonella), lipid virus (HIV)
a process that destroys or eliminates all forms of microbial life and is carried out in health-care facilities by physical or chemical methods. living tissue cannot be sterilized**
process that eliminates many or all pathogenic microorganisms, except bacterial spores*, on inanimate objects (mainly reduce number of organisms)
reduction of microorganisms on living skin/tissue - do not kill spores and cannot be used as disinfectants
What are examples of critical items to be disinfected?
items that enter normally sterile parts of human body - surgical instruments, implants, invasive monitoring devises
What are examples of semicritical items to be disinfected?
items that come into contact with mucous membranes or non intact skin - respiratory therapy and anesthesia equipment, endoscopes, laryngoscope blades, esophageal manometry probes
What are examples of noncritical items to be disinfected?
come in contact with skin but not mucous membranes - bedpans, bp cuffs, crutches, computers
How are critical items disinfected?
How are semi critical items disinfected?
How are non critical items disinfected?
alcohols, phenolics, halogens, quaternary ammonium compounds
What are the physical means of sterilization?
steam sterilization (autoclaving) *most widely used***, dry heat, irradiation (used for single-use medical supplies), filtration, gas sterilization (dangerous), plasma sterilization
What are chemical means of sterilization?
alcohols, halogens, chlorhexidine, phenolics, quaternary ammonium
When is alcohol used as a disinfectant?
used as surface disinfectant and antiseptic agent - intermediate and low level disinfection
When are halogens used as a disinfectant?
chlorine can be used against bacterial spores/TB, iodine for antisepsis of skin, chlorhexidine used for general skin cleansing, surgical scrub, pre=operative
When are phenolics used as a disinfectant?
active ingredients in household disinfectants - few effects for gram-negative - used most to prevent surgical site infections
When are quaternary ammonium compounds used as a disinfectant?
letal to a wide variety of organisms except endospores, TB, non-enveloped viruses
When is silver used as a disinfectant?
control bacterial groups by releasing nanosilver linings