Micro poop 1. Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Micro poop 1. Deck (32):
1

direct contact

infecting agent goes from infected person to another person

2

indirect contact

contaminated equipment/inanimate objects

3

respiratory transmission

airborne or droplet

4

What is the difficulty with eliminating MRSA?

can survive for 6-12 weeks on inanimate objects

5

What are standard precautions?

clean hands, covering mouth and nose when coughing/sneezing, wear gown/glove if soiling likely

6

What are respiratory precautions?

use of N95 mask and gown, private negative pressure room, patients wear surgical mask

7

When are respiratory precautions used? (examples)

TB, chickenpox, shingles, measles, flu

8

What are droplet precautions?

transmitted when patient coughs, sneezes, talks, and during procedures. wear surgical masks, gown, frequent hand washing

9

When are droplet precautions used?

bacterial meningitis, flu, pertussis (whopping cough), mumps

10

What are contact precautions?

use of gowns, gloves, alcohol based hand washing

11

When are contact precautions used?

when there will be direct and/or indirect contact - multi-drug resistant organisms (MRSA), rotavirus, scabies, wounds, abscesses with unconfined drainage

12

What are contact PLUS precautions?

hand washing must be done with soap and water - not alcohol based rub**, room must be disinfected with bleach

13

When are contact PLUS precautions used?

C-diff, acute diarrhea, norovirus, rotavirus, campylobacter, cryptosporidium, salmonella, shigella

14

When is reverse isolation used?

a method ot prevent a patient in a compromised health situation from being contaminated by other people or objects - individuals must wear surgical mask, gloves, gown

15

What is the most resistant to antiseptics and disinfectants

bacterial spores, followed by TB, then non-lipid viruses (polio), fungi, vegetative bacteria (salmonella), lipid virus (HIV)

16

sterilization

a process that destroys or eliminates all forms of microbial life and is carried out in health-care facilities by physical or chemical methods. living tissue cannot be sterilized**

17

disinfection

process that eliminates many or all pathogenic microorganisms, except bacterial spores*, on inanimate objects (mainly reduce number of organisms)

18

antisepsis

reduction of microorganisms on living skin/tissue - do not kill spores and cannot be used as disinfectants

19

What are examples of critical items to be disinfected?

items that enter normally sterile parts of human body - surgical instruments, implants, invasive monitoring devises

20

What are examples of semicritical items to be disinfected?

items that come into contact with mucous membranes or non intact skin - respiratory therapy and anesthesia equipment, endoscopes, laryngoscope blades, esophageal manometry probes

21

What are examples of noncritical items to be disinfected?

come in contact with skin but not mucous membranes - bedpans, bp cuffs, crutches, computers

22

How are critical items disinfected?

physical methods

23

How are semi critical items disinfected?

high-level disinfectant

24

How are non critical items disinfected?

alcohols, phenolics, halogens, quaternary ammonium compounds

25

What are the physical means of sterilization?

steam sterilization (autoclaving) *most widely used***, dry heat, irradiation (used for single-use medical supplies), filtration, gas sterilization (dangerous), plasma sterilization

26

What are chemical means of sterilization?

alcohols, halogens, chlorhexidine, phenolics, quaternary ammonium

27

When is alcohol used as a disinfectant?

used as surface disinfectant and antiseptic agent - intermediate and low level disinfection

28

When are halogens used as a disinfectant?

chlorine can be used against bacterial spores/TB, iodine for antisepsis of skin, chlorhexidine used for general skin cleansing, surgical scrub, pre=operative

29

When are phenolics used as a disinfectant?

active ingredients in household disinfectants - few effects for gram-negative - used most to prevent surgical site infections

30

When are quaternary ammonium compounds used as a disinfectant?

letal to a wide variety of organisms except endospores, TB, non-enveloped viruses

31

When is silver used as a disinfectant?

control bacterial groups by releasing nanosilver linings

32

When is copper used as a disinfectant?

continuously reduces bacterial contamination for both gram - and + - continuous to kill even after repeated contamination - increasingly used as medical equipment