Ability to learn from experience, ability to adapt to the environment
What does Boring's Dictum state?
Intelligence is whatever is tested in intelligence tests
What about the Kpelle culture suggests cultural influences in intelligence?
Kpelle sorting concepts, rather than sorting taxonomically, sorting functionally (knife with orange as knife cuts orange)
What did Galton study at the end of the 19th century?
family trees, believed success ran in family trees, because of genes, and that sensory acuity could measure intelligence
Who created the first intelligence test (other than sensory acuity)
Binet (1904) france
What did Terman and Stanford (the uni) do?
They revised the BInet intelligence test, created the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale, with a new scoring system based on Intelligence Quotient. (The first real IQ test!)
What is WAIS?
An intelligence measure that doesn't use IQ, is based off normal distribution
What is deprivation (in terms of intelligence)
Lack of stimulation. poverty, malnutrition and illness may all lower IQ
What did McGurk (1975) think about genetic influence on intelligence
that intelligence was genetic only
What did McCartney (1990) find about genes and intelligence?
Concordance rates for intelligence are 0.81 MZ, 0.59 DZ
What is the Flynn Effect?
IQ has increased over time all over the world
What is criterion-related validity?
whether tests used to predict behaviour correlate with independent measure of traits/behaviour etc
What is construct validity?
How much evidence is there that a test measures a hypothetical construct
What are the below average IQ classifications?
Profound Mental Retardation <20 Severe MR - 20-25 - 35-40 Moderate MR ~35-~55 Mild MR ~55-70 Borderline 70-79 Dull Normal 80-90
What are the above average IQ classifications?
Average 90-110 Bright normal 110-120 Superior 120-130 Very Superior 130+
What do aptitude tests measure?
Specific mental abilities, e.g. Verbal Reasoning
What do achievement tests measure?
Previous knowledge and learning, rather than potential
Who created confluence theory?
Zajonc and Markus - 1975
What does confluence theory suggest about firstborn children?
They have higher IQs, as they were given more attention, raised in a more mature environment, and also were given the opportunity to tutor younger siblings, which reinforces learning
What does the psychometric approach suggest about intelligence?
It is not one general thing. Structure of intelligence made up of various abilities
What is the triarchic theory of intelligence?
Three subtheories of intelligence Componential subtheory Experiential subtheory Contextual subtheory
What is componential subtheory?
The ability to break things down and analyse them etc
What is experiential subtheory?
The ability to perform tasks with different levels of experience, i.e. An automated task or a novel one. Some people are excellent at novel tasks and vice Versace
What is contextual subtheory?
Take in information and adapt to it, or shape the environment to one's needs, or select a new environment - street smarts
What are autistic savants an example of?
Multiple intelligences, superior in one area but severely lacking in others
What is the hierarchical model of intelligence?
Multiple small observables allow insight into unobservables, which together form a composite intelligence
What is fluid intelligence?
Reasoning and problem solving
What is crystallised intelligence?
What are the four temperaments based off hippocrate's 4 humours
Melancholic - gloomy Choleric - angry and violent Phlegmatic- calm and passive Sanguine - cheerful and happy
What are the three somatotypes? (Sheldon)
Ectomorphic - tall, thin, fragile, dainty Endomorphic - soft, round, fat Mesomorphic- strong, muscular
What are the three components of Freudian personality
Id, ego, superego
What is the superego?
Operates on the morality principle
What principle does the id operate on?
Operates on the pleasure principle, wants everything, straight away
What is the ego?
The mediator between id and superego, operates on the reality principle
What is libido?
Psychic energy - fuels drives, hunger, sex, aggression, impulses etc
What are the psychosexual stages of development?
Oral- birth-12/18 months Anal- 12/18months- 3 years Phallic- 3-6 years Latency- 6-puberty Genital- puberty-death
What happens if you don't complete a psychosexual stage?
Leads to unresolved conflict, develop certain traits, e.g. Anally expulsive/retentive
What is a trait?
A 'stable source of individual differences that characterise a person'
What is the nomothetic approach to personality?
Everyone has the same traits, they just vary in the amount of each trait they have
What is the idiographic approach to personality?
People differ in the personality traits they have
What is Neo-Freudian Jung Known for?
Collective unconsciousness archetypes persona, shadow, anima, animus
What is Repression?
the mind actively hiding a trauma from memory
What is Reaction Formation?
replacing an anxiety provoking idea with the opposite, eg being nice to someone you dont like
What were the two main dimensions of personality Eysenck defined?
Introversion -> extraversion Neuroticism -> stability
What is projection?
A defence mechanism where feelings about yourself are projected onto others, eg if you are angry you might say someone else is angry
What is sublimation?
Channelling psychic energy from actions viewed as negative to ones viewed as positive
What is rationalisation?
Creating acceptable reasons for a behaviour that may be caused by less acceptable reasons
What is conversion?
manifestations of psychological problems as physical symptoms
WHat is displacement
movement of negative emotions off the cause to another object
What are the Big 5 personality traits?
Openness, Conscientiousness, Extroversion, Agreeableness, Neuroticism
What was Bandura's theory of personality?
based off social learning theory and reciprocal determinism. the cognitive element of personality comes from feelings of self-efficacy
What was Rotter's theory of personality?
Expectancy theory, behaviour depends on what a person expects the consequences to be , and their value placed on them. Internal and external locus of control also
What was Mischel's theory of personality?
Person-situation theory, both are important in defining behaviour, rather than simply disposition
What was Maslows suggestion on personality?
motivation is central to personality, based on hierarchy of needs, have to satisfy base needs before moving up
What are the stages on Maslow's hierarchy of needs?
Physiological Needs, Safety Needs, Belonginess and Love, Self Esteem Needs, Cognitive Needs, Aesthetic Needs, Self Actualisation, Peak Experiences
What is an objective personality test?
One that uses standardised and uniform procedures, Eg MMPI
What is the Rorshach inkblot test?
A test using a series of symmetrical inkblots, once used to detect psychopathology but now used to assess personality
What is the thematic apperception test?
A series of ambiguous but realistic pictures are shown, and subjects suggest what happened before the scene, in the scene and the outcomes
What is apperception?
The projection of personal information into the stimulus perceived
What is Roger's theory of personality?
We need self consistency and congruence, if experience does not fit self concept then there is anxiety