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Flashcards in Individual Differences Deck (60):
1

Define Intelligence

Ability to learn from experience, ability to adapt to the environment

2

What does Boring's Dictum state?

Intelligence is whatever is tested in intelligence tests

3

What about the Kpelle culture suggests cultural influences in intelligence?

Kpelle sorting concepts, rather than sorting taxonomically, sorting functionally (knife with orange as knife cuts orange)

4

What did Galton study at the end of the 19th century?

family trees, believed success ran in family trees, because of genes, and that sensory acuity could measure intelligence

5

Who created the first intelligence test (other than sensory acuity)

Binet (1904) france

6

What did Terman and Stanford (the uni) do?

They revised the BInet intelligence test, created the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale, with a new scoring system based on Intelligence Quotient. (The first real IQ test!)

7

What is WAIS?

An intelligence measure that doesn't use IQ, is based off normal distribution

8

What is deprivation (in terms of intelligence)

Lack of stimulation. poverty, malnutrition and illness may all lower IQ

9

What did McGurk (1975) think about genetic influence on intelligence

that intelligence was genetic only

10

What did McCartney (1990) find about genes and intelligence?

Concordance rates for intelligence are 0.81 MZ, 0.59 DZ

11

What is the Flynn Effect?

IQ has increased over time all over the world

12

What is criterion-related validity?

whether tests used to predict behaviour correlate with independent measure of traits/behaviour etc

13

What is construct validity?

How much evidence is there that a test measures a hypothetical construct

14

What are the below average IQ classifications?

Profound Mental Retardation <20 Severe MR - 20-25 - 35-40 Moderate MR ~35-~55 Mild MR ~55-70 Borderline 70-79 Dull Normal 80-90

15

What are the above average IQ classifications?

Average 90-110 Bright normal 110-120 Superior 120-130 Very Superior 130+

16

What do aptitude tests measure?

Specific mental abilities, e.g. Verbal Reasoning

17

What do achievement tests measure?

Previous knowledge and learning, rather than potential

18

Who created confluence theory?

Zajonc and Markus - 1975

19

What does confluence theory suggest about firstborn children?

They have higher IQs, as they were given more attention, raised in a more mature environment, and also were given the opportunity to tutor younger siblings, which reinforces learning

20

What does the psychometric approach suggest about intelligence?

It is not one general thing. Structure of intelligence made up of various abilities

21

What is the triarchic theory of intelligence?

Three subtheories of intelligence Componential subtheory Experiential subtheory Contextual subtheory

22

What is componential subtheory?

The ability to break things down and analyse them etc

23

What is experiential subtheory?

The ability to perform tasks with different levels of experience, i.e. An automated task or a novel one. Some people are excellent at novel tasks and vice Versace

24

What is contextual subtheory?

Take in information and adapt to it, or shape the environment to one's needs, or select a new environment - street smarts

25

What are autistic savants an example of?

Multiple intelligences, superior in one area but severely lacking in others

26

What is the hierarchical model of intelligence?

Multiple small observables allow insight into unobservables, which together form a composite intelligence

27

What is fluid intelligence?

Reasoning and problem solving

28

What is crystallised intelligence?

Gathered knowledge

29

What are the four temperaments based off hippocrate's 4 humours

Melancholic - gloomy Choleric - angry and violent Phlegmatic- calm and passive Sanguine - cheerful and happy

30

What are the three somatotypes? (Sheldon)

Ectomorphic - tall, thin, fragile, dainty Endomorphic - soft, round, fat Mesomorphic- strong, muscular

31

What are the three components of Freudian personality

Id, ego, superego

32

What is the superego?

Operates on the morality principle

33

What principle does the id operate on?

Operates on the pleasure principle, wants everything, straight away

34

What is the ego?

The mediator between id and superego, operates on the reality principle

35

What is libido?

Psychic energy - fuels drives, hunger, sex, aggression, impulses etc

36

What are the psychosexual stages of development?

Oral- birth-12/18 months Anal- 12/18months- 3 years Phallic- 3-6 years Latency- 6-puberty Genital- puberty-death

37

What happens if you don't complete a psychosexual stage?

Leads to unresolved conflict, develop certain traits, e.g. Anally expulsive/retentive

38

What is a trait?

A 'stable source of individual differences that characterise a person'

39

What is the nomothetic approach to personality?

Everyone has the same traits, they just vary in the amount of each trait they have

40

What is the idiographic approach to personality?

People differ in the personality traits they have

41

What is Neo-Freudian Jung Known for?

Collective unconsciousness archetypes persona, shadow, anima, animus

42

What is Repression?

the mind actively hiding a trauma from memory

43

What is Reaction Formation?

replacing an anxiety provoking idea with the opposite, eg being nice to someone you dont like

44

What were the two main dimensions of personality Eysenck defined?

Introversion -> extraversion Neuroticism -> stability

45

What is projection?

A defence mechanism where feelings about yourself are projected onto others, eg if you are angry you might say someone else is angry

46

What is sublimation?

Channelling psychic energy from actions viewed as negative to ones viewed as positive

47

What is rationalisation?

Creating acceptable reasons for a behaviour that may be caused by less acceptable reasons

48

What is conversion?

manifestations of psychological problems as physical symptoms

49

WHat is displacement

movement of negative emotions off the cause to another object

50

What are the Big 5 personality traits?

Openness, Conscientiousness, Extroversion, Agreeableness, Neuroticism

51

What was Bandura's theory of personality?

based off social learning theory and reciprocal determinism. the cognitive element of personality comes from feelings of self-efficacy

52

What was Rotter's theory of personality?

Expectancy theory, behaviour depends on what a person expects the consequences to be , and their value placed on them. Internal and external locus of control also

53

What was Mischel's theory of personality?

Person-situation theory, both are important in defining behaviour, rather than simply disposition

54

What was Maslows suggestion on personality?

motivation is central to personality, based on hierarchy of needs, have to satisfy base needs before moving up

55

What are the stages on Maslow's hierarchy of needs?

Physiological Needs, Safety Needs, Belonginess and Love, Self Esteem Needs, Cognitive Needs, Aesthetic Needs, Self Actualisation, Peak Experiences

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56

What is an objective personality test?

One that uses standardised and uniform procedures, Eg MMPI

57

What is the Rorshach inkblot test?

A test using a series of symmetrical inkblots, once used to detect psychopathology but now used to assess personality

58

What is the thematic apperception test?

A series of ambiguous but realistic pictures are shown, and subjects suggest what happened before the scene, in the scene and the outcomes

59

What is apperception?

The projection of personal information into the stimulus perceived

60

What is Roger's theory of personality?

We need self consistency and congruence, if experience does not fit self concept then there is anxiety