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Flashcards in Mental Health and Wellbeing Deck (132):
1

What i WHO's definition of Health?

a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being’

2

What is health psychology?

A branch of psychology addressing factors that influence well-being and illness

3

How did Matarazzo define Health Psychology? (1980)

the aggregate of the specific educational, scientific and professional contribution of the discipline of psychology to the promotion and maintenance of health, the promotion and treatment of illness and related dysfunction

4

What is a stressor?

demands made by the internal or external environment that upset balance

5

Give examples of types of stressors

Micro-Stressors, Negative Life Events etc.
Acute Stress/ Chronic Stress

6

What are the components of the physiological stress response?

Hypothalamus, Pituitary Gland, ACTH, Adrenal Glands, Cortisol, Aldosterone, Epinephrine.

7

What is Allostasis?

a physiological and psychological mechanism that promotes balance, changing through variation rather than similarity

8

Which physiological mechanism promotes balance in the body through single point tuning (eg blood pH)

Homeostasis

9

What is the difference between allostasis and homeostasis

Homeostasis makes smaller, more subtle changes, to remain around the same level (eg blood temperature). Allostasis makes more radical and short term changes to maintain internal viability

10

Who coined the term Allostsis?

Sterling and Eyer (1988)

11

What is Allostatic load?

Allostasis creates 'wear and tear' and a body can only handle so much of this

12

What is allostatic overload?

The bidy has overreached its capacity, and so there can be intense pathophysiological effects

13

What example of allostatic load did Donoghue research (2016)?

Older adults study showed that exposure to recent adversity was associated with doubling of the odds of depression

14

Why might chronic stress lead to more frequent illness?

As cortisol inhibits the immune system

15

What did Kieholt-Glaser et al (1984) find about stress and the immune system

blood samples taken from the first group (before the exam) contained more t-cells compared with blood samples taken during the exams

16

Who introduced the concept of homeostasis and Fight or Flight?

Walter Canon

17

What problems are there with the fight or flight response?

Androcentric, doesn't take into account psychological factors and is described as constant regardless of stressor

18

What did Hanse Seyl (1976) find about the body's resistance to stress?

Resistance is low at first (S1: Alarm) Increases in S2, but exhaustion from continued resistance will drop resistance to stress

19

What is the transactional model of stress?

A model where stress is both a stimulus and a response, seen as a person-situation interaction

20

What is cognitive appraisal?

The stages passed through when deciding the nature of a stressor

21

What are the stages of cognitive appraisal?

Primary Appraisal- Is it a threat?
Secondary Appraisal- Can I cope with this?

22

If a stressor is deemed to be 'copable with' in the secondary appraisal, what occurs?

Coping methods are deployed, which then lead to outcomes, e.g. good mental health

23

How did Lazarus and Laurnier (1978)
define coping?

Constantly changing cognitive and behavioural efforts to manage specific internal and/or external demands that are appraised as taxing or exceeding the resources of the person

24

Who investigated the dynamic nature of coping, involving appraisal and reappraisal of a situation?

Lazarus and Folkman (1987)

25

What are the main elements of coping?

Coping is a process of constant evaluation of the success of one’s strategies
Coping is learned as one encounters situations
Coping requires effort
Coping is an effort to manage. Success is not contingent on mastery, just good enough

26

What is problem focused coping?

Coping that targets the causes of stress in practical ways, consequently directly reducing it

27

Examples of Problem Focused Coping?

Planning, active coping and problem solving, Exercising restrain.

28

Positive of Problem Focused Coping?

+ Best choice in general, provides long term solution

29

Negative of Problem Focused Coping

Often little help on problems that 'can't' be fixed, eg bereavement

30

What is Emotion Focused Coping?

Trying to reduce the negative emotional responses associated with stress

31

Name negative emotional responses associated with stress

Embarrassment, fear, anxiety, depression

32

What type of coping is Drug Therapy?

Technically Emotion Focused, as it does not tackle the stressors, only the symptoms

33

Examples of Emotion focused coping?

Positive reinterpretation, Acceptance, Controlling feelings

34

What did Penley, Tomaka and Weibe (2012) find about emotion focused coping?

In general, EF coping users reported poorer health outcomes, less effective than problem focused

35

How might Seeking Social support lead to coping?

provide EF coping through Emotional Support, can promote PF coping, proving tangible solutions

36

Which coping strategy is best to use?

As coping is a dynamic process, affected by dispositional and situational factors, both can be appropriate

37

Several studies have shown what about trauma disclosure?

In students, disclosure has been related to enhanced immune function and 50% less visits to campus health services

38

WHat did Ptacek et al find about gender and coping? (1992)

Men are more likely to use PF coping, women more likely to seek social support and use EF coping

39

What did Folkman and Lazarus find about gender and coping? (1980)

no gender differences in coping strategies

40

What did Coan et al (2006) find about social support?

women exposed to threatening stimuli had reduced fear activation when holding their spouses hand (fMRI)

41

What has been found about the effects of mindfulness?

Short term effects have been established
Good comparison rates compared to CBT
Long term studies needed

42

What did Ellis (1962) believe was the root of most maladaptive feelings?

Irrational core beliefs

43

Name some of Ellis' irrational core beliefs? (1962)

The idea that one should be thoroughly competent at everything.
The idea that is it catastrophic when things are not the way you want them to be.
The idea that people have no control over their happiness.
The idea that there is a perfect solution to human problems, and it’s a disaster if you don’t find it.

44

Name a few conditions where mindfulness has been shown to have effects

Cancer, Psoriasis, Insomnia, Diabetes

45

What is Somatic Relaxation Training?

Progressive muscle relaxation, slowly tensing and then relaxing each muscle group individually, toe to head

46

What is cognitive relaxation?

Transcendental mediation (repeat a mantra), mindfulness meditation - focus on thoughts and sensations

47

What are Health Behaviour theories?

Processes that underlie behavioural change, usually to a more healthy behaviour

48

Who suggested the theory of planned behaviour?

Icek Ajzen, 1985

49

What does the theory of planned behaviour suggest?

A person's intention (motivation behind a behaviour) is determined by three factors

50

What are three factors in TOPB that affect behaviour?

Attitude towards the specific behaviour
Subjective norms
Perceived behavioural control.

51

Who suggested the Transtheoretical Model of Behaviour Change?

(Prochaska and DiClemente, 1982)

52

What are the stages of the TTMBC

Pre-contemplation
Contemplation
Preparation
Action
Maintenance

53

What is Pre-contemplation in TTMBC?

The stage where you don't intend to make a change

54

What is Contemplation in TTMBC?

The stage where you are considering a behavioural change

55

What is preparation in TTMBC?

The stage where small changes are made

56

What is action in TTMBC?

the stage where you actively engage in a new behaviour

57

What is Maintenance in TTMBC?

Sustaining achanged behaviour over time

58

What are behavioural beliefs?

Beliefs over the importance of an issue and whether behaviour will be effective

59

What are Normative beliefs?

Thoughts on how others will perceive behaviour

60

What are control beliefs?

beliefs in your self efficacy, ability to carry out a behaviour

61

What did O'connor (2006) find about TBP as a predictor of behaviour?

Self-efficacy, attitude and descriptive norm were all better predictors of self harm and suicidality than depression

62

What criticism is there of the Theory of Planned Behaviour?

There is no clear order or causality direction

63

How might TTMBC be used to encourage healthy behaviour?

Providing clear nutrition information can make pros and cons more clear in the contemplation stage

64

Who created the cognitive-behavioural model of relapse?

Marlatt and Gordon, 1985

65

What are the stages of the model of relapse, if relapse is unlikely?

Ineffective coping response.
decreased self-efficacy.
initial use of substance.
Abstinence violation effect.
Increased probability of relapse

66

What treatments are there for behavioural change?

– Aversion therapy
Relaxation and Stress management training
– Self-monitoring procedures
– Coping
– Counselling
– Strengthen change procedures

67

What are the three definitions of abnormality?

Statistical Infrequency
Deviation from social norms
Failure to meet criteria of ideal mental health

68

What did Rosenthan (1973) find in their study on mental institutions?

Healthy patients would be admitted for schizophrenia based off ONE symptom, with other symptoms interpreted as pathological

69

What happened to the confederates in Rosenthan (1973)?

All but one of the confederates were falsely diagnosed as having SZ

70

What is Schizophrenia?

A mental disorder that leads to symptoms such as hallucinations, delusions, speech poverty and avolition

71

What is the incidence rate for schizophrenia?

1-2%, equal in males and females but tends to be later onset for females, similar frequencies across the globe

72

What are the positive symptoms of Schizophrenia?

Delusions, eg delusions of grandeur, thought insertion, broadcast etc. Paranoia, Hallucinations. Disorganised behaviour and speech

73

What are the Negative symptoms of Schizophrenia?

Alogia (speech poverty), impaired social interactions, Apathy (lack of interest in goal-orientated activities. Anhedonia

74

What is the relationship between schizophrenia and suicide?

10% death by suicide, 60-80% ideation. Risk higher for males in social isolation. rarely due to command hallucinations

75

What did Gottesman (1987) find about twins with SZ?

The concordance rate between MZ twins is higher than DZ, at 44.3% and 12.08% respectively

76

The concordance rate for Schizophrenia in MZ twins is only 44.3% (Gottesman, 1987). What does this suggest about the causes of SZ?

They are both genetic and environmental. If the causes were entirely genetic the concordance rate should be 100%

77

What are the types of Schizophrenia?

Disorganised (hebephrenic): disorganised, bizarre behaviour
Catatonic: excitement, energetic, vs catatonic immobility.
Paranoid: delusional
Undifferentiated: psychotic symptoms are present but the criteria for paranoid, disorganized, or catatonic types have not been met
Residual: positive symptoms present at a low intensity only

78

Why can labelling of mental disorders be detrimental?

Labels can : reduce responsibility, create a self-fulfilling prophecy, and generate stigma

79

Who coined the term Schizophrenia?

Bleuler (1911)

80

What is the dopamine hypothesis?

The theory that abnormal levels of dopamine lead to the symptoms of SZ

81

What is Hyperdopaminergia?

Excess of dopamine in the sub cortex

82

What might an excess of dopamine receptors on broca's area be linked to SZ?

It may explain issues with speech, or auditory hallucinations

83

What is Hypodopaminergia?

Low levels of dopamine in the cortex, low levels in the prefrontal cortex (decision making), may be responsible for negative symptoms such as avolition

84

WHat did Randrup and Munkvad (1966) find about dopamine and schizophrenia?

WHen rats were administered with L-Dopa, there showed SZ symptoms. When dosed with anti-psychotics, symptoms wwere reduced

85

What did Randrup and Munkvad's 1966 study suggest?

SZ symptoms are similar to dopamine action produced by cocaine and amphetamines, anti-psychotics may reduce dopamine action?

86

What did Berman et al find about SZ and neural correlates?

in MZ twins discordant for SZ, there were no differences in brain activation at rest, but during a card sorting activity, SZ twin showed reduced pre-frontal cortex activity

87

What did Hollingshead and Redlich (1954) find about the sociopsychological 'causes' of schizophrenia?

study in Connecticut. SZ 2x higher in lowest social class than second lowest.

88

What is Expressed Emotion?

The level of emotion, particularly negative, in families.

89

What did Brown (1966) find about SZ and EE?

Expressed Emotion is primarily an explanation of relapse, but combined with the D-S model can explain triggering of SZ. (Brown 1966)

90

What did Reulbach et al (2007) find that supports the diathesis-stress model of schizophrenia?

onset of SZ after holocaust. Significantly ass. With highest level of persecution (P<0.001).

91

What are the symptoms of major depression?

Profoundly sad mood over weeks/months
Loss of interest in activities and relationships (Anhedonia)
Disturbance of appetite, sleep
Suicidal ideation
Possibly delusions

92

What disorders/symptoms are often co-morbid with depression?

Anxiety, panic attacks, self-harm, suicidal behaviour, substance abuse, personality disorders, somatic symptoms

93

Which sex reports major depression more?

Women - 21-22%, Men - 13%

94

What is bipolar disorder?

A disorder with both stages of depression (similar to major depression) and periods of elation

95

What characteristics are common in 'manic' episodes?

Elation, Hyperactivity, Impractical flight of ideas, distractibility, inappropriate/intrusive thoughts, inflated self esteem, less need for sleep

96

How many people are affected by bipolar disorder?

approximately 1% of the population

97

What did O'Connor (2008) find about impaired future thinking?

positively correlated with suicide risk. self harm and suicide attempts best pridictor of suicide

98

What does cognitive therapy aim to do?

to identify and monitor negative thoughts, recognise their effects on feelings and substitue them for more positive ones

99

What is CBT?

Cognitive Behavioural Therapy, Cognitive therapy with a behavioural aspect involved.

100

What theory about depression did Seligman (1974) propose?

Learned Helplessness. Feelings of uncontrollability lead to passiveness in the face of negative events and emotions

101

What are the three aspects of Beck's cognitive the

Cognitive Triad
Schemata
Cognitive Bias

102

What is the Cognitive Triad?

Negative thoughts towards the self, the world and the future.

103

What are Negative Schemata?

Where events are interpreted through a negative 'lens', maintaining the cognitive triad

104

What is cognitive bias?

Faulty processing of information, arbitrary inference, personalisation, overgeneralisation

105

What does Beck's depression inventory measure?

acts as a quantitative measure of depression severity

106

What are some statistics on the frequency of suicide?

1m commit suicide each year. Failed attempts 10-20x higher. 2nd highest leading cause of death 18-24 year olds. Women attempt more. Men more likely to die.
15% clinically depressed will commit suicide
SZ major risk factor
Suicide not always in deepest depression
Anxiety comorbidity increases risk
LGBT men at higher risk

107

What are the two main parts to OCD?

obsessions - intrusive thoughts
compulsions - actions to diminish these thoughts, repeated.

108

What is Trichotillomania?

Compulsive hair pulling

109

What are the two types of trichotillomania?

Automatic - subconscious
Focussed - conscious, often in response to negative mood states

110

What is Dermotillomania?

Recurrents skin picking, resultant in lesions

111

What are the parameters to be diagnosed with dermotillomania?

Clinically significant distress/ impairment, attempts to stop, not better explained by another disorder

112

Why might trichotillomania etc not be in the same category as OCD?

No intrusive thoughts
sometimes pleasurable
anxiety often missing

113

What is psychoanalysis?

A therapy designed to gain insight into unconscious conflict, resolve them and reconstruct personality

114

Who invented psychoanalysis?

Freud

115

What techniques have been used as part of psychoanalysis?

Hypnosis, Free association, Dream analysis, Interpretation and denial, Reaction, resistance and transfer.

116

Who suggested Holistic Psychology and Client centred therapy as a treatment?

Rogers, 1940s-50s

117

What is the theory behind Client Centred Therapy?

Over dependence on acceptance of others, leads to incongruence, affecting personal growth

118

What are the goals of client centred therapy?

Congruence between experience and self-concept. No tangible goals set, unconditional positive regard from therapist.

119

Which psychologists are linked to the development of behavioural therapy?

Eysenk, Skinner, Wolpe.

120

What therapy for phobias is a form of behavioural therapy?

Systematic Desensitisation

121

What did Gilroy (2000) find in his study of systematic desensitisation for those with arachnophobia?

Systematic desensitisation reduced fear reaction, more than a relaxation placebo. Live exposure and vicarious exposure both successful, fear was still reduced 33 months later

122

What did Eysenck (1952) argue about insight therapies?

that they were ineffective (but later studies showed they can have effects)

123

Name some characteristics of Gestalt therapy

Belief people are innately 'good'
Concentrate on whole person, and present, not past
Empty chair technique
role therapy

124

What is aversion therapy?

Classical conditioning, using an averse stimulus, to associate with a bad habit

125

What is Rational emotive therapy?

Therapy based of Ellis' ABC model, newer versions (REBT) include behavioral elements

126

What does ABCDE stand for in Ellis' ABC model

A - Activating Event
B - Belief system responsible from A to C
C - Emotional/ Behavioural Consequence
D - Disputation where irrational beliefs are challenged
E - Effects or Outcomes

127

What is Psychopharmacology?

Use of drugs in treatment

128

What drugs are used to treat anxiety?

Tranquilisers, Benzodiazapines (Xanax, Valium, Lithium)

129

Generalised Anxiety Disorder - drug treatment?

Anti-anxiety drugs

130

Schizophrenia - drug treatment?

Antipsychotics, Eg Chlorpromazine, Clozapine etc

131

What is Electro-Convulsive Therapy?

A small electric current passed through two electrodes on the scalp

132

What is Psycho-surgery?

Removal or destruction of brain tissue to improve psychological wellbeing