Flashcards in Mental Health and Wellbeing Deck (132)
What i WHO's definition of Health?
a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being’
What is health psychology?
A branch of psychology addressing factors that influence well-being and illness
How did Matarazzo define Health Psychology? (1980)
the aggregate of the specific educational, scientific and professional contribution of the discipline of psychology to the promotion and maintenance of health, the promotion and treatment of illness and related dysfunction
What is a stressor?
demands made by the internal or external environment that upset balance
Give examples of types of stressors
Micro-Stressors, Negative Life Events etc.
Acute Stress/ Chronic Stress
What are the components of the physiological stress response?
Hypothalamus, Pituitary Gland, ACTH, Adrenal Glands, Cortisol, Aldosterone, Epinephrine.
What is Allostasis?
a physiological and psychological mechanism that promotes balance, changing through variation rather than similarity
Which physiological mechanism promotes balance in the body through single point tuning (eg blood pH)
What is the difference between allostasis and homeostasis
Homeostasis makes smaller, more subtle changes, to remain around the same level (eg blood temperature). Allostasis makes more radical and short term changes to maintain internal viability
Who coined the term Allostsis?
Sterling and Eyer (1988)
What is Allostatic load?
Allostasis creates 'wear and tear' and a body can only handle so much of this
What is allostatic overload?
The bidy has overreached its capacity, and so there can be intense pathophysiological effects
What example of allostatic load did Donoghue research (2016)?
Older adults study showed that exposure to recent adversity was associated with doubling of the odds of depression
Why might chronic stress lead to more frequent illness?
As cortisol inhibits the immune system
What did Kieholt-Glaser et al (1984) find about stress and the immune system
blood samples taken from the first group (before the exam) contained more t-cells compared with blood samples taken during the exams
Who introduced the concept of homeostasis and Fight or Flight?
What problems are there with the fight or flight response?
Androcentric, doesn't take into account psychological factors and is described as constant regardless of stressor
What did Hanse Seyl (1976) find about the body's resistance to stress?
Resistance is low at first (S1: Alarm) Increases in S2, but exhaustion from continued resistance will drop resistance to stress
What is the transactional model of stress?
A model where stress is both a stimulus and a response, seen as a person-situation interaction
What is cognitive appraisal?
The stages passed through when deciding the nature of a stressor
What are the stages of cognitive appraisal?
Primary Appraisal- Is it a threat?
Secondary Appraisal- Can I cope with this?
If a stressor is deemed to be 'copable with' in the secondary appraisal, what occurs?
Coping methods are deployed, which then lead to outcomes, e.g. good mental health
How did Lazarus and Laurnier (1978)
Constantly changing cognitive and behavioural efforts to manage specific internal and/or external demands that are appraised as taxing or exceeding the resources of the person
Who investigated the dynamic nature of coping, involving appraisal and reappraisal of a situation?
Lazarus and Folkman (1987)
What are the main elements of coping?
Coping is a process of constant evaluation of the success of one’s strategies
Coping is learned as one encounters situations
Coping requires effort
Coping is an effort to manage. Success is not contingent on mastery, just good enough
What is problem focused coping?
Coping that targets the causes of stress in practical ways, consequently directly reducing it
Examples of Problem Focused Coping?
Planning, active coping and problem solving, Exercising restrain.
Positive of Problem Focused Coping?
+ Best choice in general, provides long term solution
Negative of Problem Focused Coping
Often little help on problems that 'can't' be fixed, eg bereavement