Flashcards in Memory Deck (62):
What are the subsystems of sensory memory
Iconic store (visual input) and Echoic store (auditory input)
What is the Duration of Sensory Memory?
Visual: Less than a second
What is the Capacity of Short Term Memory?
7+/-2 chunks of information
What is the Duration of Short Term Memory?
Seconds, If unrehearsed (Peterson and Peterson)
Why is Short Term Memory not an apt description?
Too Passive - Working Memory is a better description
What does HM's case study suggest about the distinctness of memory systems?
As HM could create new long term procedural memories (mirror drawing task) but couldn't remember doing so, suggests different LTM stores
How does CW's case study suggest distinct subsystems of memory?
He couldn't make new long term memories but his short term memory was fine
What did Sperling (1960) study?
The Duration of Sensory Memory
How did Sperling test the duration of sensory memory?
12 letters flashed for 50ms, different tones indicate row to recall. Sometimes tone was delayed
How did Sperling ensure he tested sensory memory not STM (1960)?
The letters only appeared for 50ms, allowing a scan of the full array but no time to actually read them
What are the 4 main parts of the Working Memory Model?
How is the Phonological loop encoded?
What does Baddley's 1966a study suggest about STM encoding?
That it is Encoded acoustically, as similar sounding words are muddled but similar meaning words are less so.
What does Baddley's 1966b study suggest about encoding of LTM?
That it is semantic, as similar meaning words are recalled poorer than similarly sounding ones.
Who created the WMM?
Baddley and HItch (1974)
Who created the three stage model of memory?
Atkinson and Shiffrin (1968)
What did Glanzer and Cunitz find in their 1966 study?
That the first and last words from a list are remembered best
What is the Serial Position Effect?
The first items remembered (in a series) are remembered well as they are rehearsed and enter LTM, and the last items are remembered as they are held in WM. The central items are easest lost
What are the two main types of Long Term Memory?
Explicit and Implicit
If a memory is non declarative what type of memory is it?
What are the two sub-types of declarative memory?
Episodic and Semantic
What are the three sub types of Implicit memory?
Procedural, Conditioning, Priming
The processing of information so it can be stored for later retrieval
Placing Newly acquired knowledge into WM of LTM for later retrieval
Re-accessing Information from the past, which has been encoded and stored
How is memory theorised to be stored?
As a semantic network of spreading activation. The activation of a concept will prime other related concepts, with the most related concepts being primed first/ the most
How can Chunking improve Encoding?
It combines items into small, meaningful untits, allowing more information to be stored at once
How can Mnemonics enhance storage?
They combine information into a single word or phrase, and allow remembering through association
How can Organisation enhance encoding?
By organising information semantically, eg with a visual hierarchy, information is encoded both semantically and visually
What is the method of Loci?
Using a familiar (or well thought out space), information is associated with a physical location (or perception of one), so being in that location trigger the information
What are the two types of rehearsal?
Shallow rehearsal and Elaborate Rehearsal
What type of rehersal is shallow (maintanance)
Reading, or rereading information
Give an example of elaborate rehearsal
Turning your revision notes into flashcards, a new format.
What did Craig and Lockhart (1972) theorise about levels of processing?
Multiple levels, structural, phonemic and semantic
Which type of processing is the most shallow? (Craig and Lockhart, 1972)?
Structural, Processing shapes as letters, letters as a combination to make a word?
What level of processing is phonemic? (Craig and Lockhart, 1972)
The middle, Deeper. "Horse rhymes with course?"
What is the deepest level of processing? (Crag and Lockhart, 1972)
Semantic, understanding of a meaning of a word for example
What factors can influence the ease of retrieval of memory?
Nature of stimulus, as well as environmental. physiological and psychological factors
What factors about the stimulus might influence retrieval?
Distinctiveness of event (or behaviour witnessed etc)
Also distinctive cues used to retrieve the memory
How might environmental context affect memory?
if you are in a similar environment to where you learnt information
What were the results of Goddon and Baddeley (1975)
Divers who learnt underwater performed better underwater and vice versa
What is a flashbulb memory?
a memory of an event that happens a single time or rarely, yet is remembered clearly.
What did Talacario and Rubin find in 2003?
They found that participants were more confident and remembered more details about 9/11 than typical college events
How does the role of pre-existing knowledge affect retrieval of memory?
Prior knowledge allows for a pre-existing schema for information to slot in
What is schema consistent information?
information that fits well into preconceived ideas, eg a bank robber having a gun
What did Tuckey and Brewer (2003) find about schema inconsistent information?
when showing participants a bank robbery both the schema consistent and inconsistent information
Why might memory failures occur with sensory memory?
memory is lost if attention is not paid
Why might memories be lost from stm?
If the memory is not rehearsed
What is Retroactive interference?
Where new information interferes with the old
What is proactive interference?
Where old information interferes with the new
What is tip-of-the-tongue phenomenon?
A temporary inability to recall information, can often recall similar sounds or meanings
What is a lapse in attention?
A memory failure that normally happens while multitasking, the less 'difficult' task is often not encoded properly
What is egocentric bias?
distortion of memory that makes you look better. E.g. remembering your A grades but not your D grades
What is misattribution?
assigning a recollection or idea to the wrong source.
Give an Example of Misattribution
witnessing an event, seeing a face later on, and incorrectly assigning the faces to the event
What is consistency bias?
altering the past to fit the present
What did Marcus (1986) find about consistency bias?
Asked to rate views on controversial issues in 1973. Asked in 1982 to rate again, then say what they said in 73
Their memories of their ratings were closer to the 82 ratings than they were to the originals
What did Loftus and Palmer (1974) find about misleading information?
Loftus and Palmer(1974)
Smashed—40.5 mph, Hit—34mph
Was there glass? Smashed = yes, contacted = no
What is infantile amnesia?
Children age 5-10 can often remember events from before they were 1. Why? Immature encoding areas of brain? Lack of language/self concept?
What is alzheimers?
Progressive brain disease, impaired LTM and STM. Spreads from temporal lobe incl. hippocampus, to frontal lobe and other areas.
What is change bias?
Exaggerating differences, consistent rating for relationships over the years, yet love has consistently ‘increased’