Flashcards in Memory Deck (62)
What are the subsystems of sensory memory
Iconic store (visual input) and Echoic store (auditory input)
What is the Duration of Sensory Memory?
Visual: Less than a second
What is the Capacity of Short Term Memory?
7+/-2 chunks of information
What is the Duration of Short Term Memory?
Seconds, If unrehearsed (Peterson and Peterson)
Why is Short Term Memory not an apt description?
Too Passive - Working Memory is a better description
What does HM's case study suggest about the distinctness of memory systems?
As HM could create new long term procedural memories (mirror drawing task) but couldn't remember doing so, suggests different LTM stores
How does CW's case study suggest distinct subsystems of memory?
He couldn't make new long term memories but his short term memory was fine
What did Sperling (1960) study?
The Duration of Sensory Memory
How did Sperling test the duration of sensory memory?
12 letters flashed for 50ms, different tones indicate row to recall. Sometimes tone was delayed
How did Sperling ensure he tested sensory memory not STM (1960)?
The letters only appeared for 50ms, allowing a scan of the full array but no time to actually read them
What are the 4 main parts of the Working Memory Model?
How is the Phonological loop encoded?
What does Baddley's 1966a study suggest about STM encoding?
That it is Encoded acoustically, as similar sounding words are muddled but similar meaning words are less so.
What does Baddley's 1966b study suggest about encoding of LTM?
That it is semantic, as similar meaning words are recalled poorer than similarly sounding ones.
Who created the WMM?
Baddley and HItch (1974)
Who created the three stage model of memory?
Atkinson and Shiffrin (1968)
What did Glanzer and Cunitz find in their 1966 study?
That the first and last words from a list are remembered best
What is the Serial Position Effect?
The first items remembered (in a series) are remembered well as they are rehearsed and enter LTM, and the last items are remembered as they are held in WM. The central items are easest lost
What are the two main types of Long Term Memory?
Explicit and Implicit
If a memory is non declarative what type of memory is it?
What are the two sub-types of declarative memory?
Episodic and Semantic
What are the three sub types of Implicit memory?
Procedural, Conditioning, Priming
The processing of information so it can be stored for later retrieval
Placing Newly acquired knowledge into WM of LTM for later retrieval
Re-accessing Information from the past, which has been encoded and stored
How is memory theorised to be stored?
As a semantic network of spreading activation. The activation of a concept will prime other related concepts, with the most related concepts being primed first/ the most
How can Chunking improve Encoding?
It combines items into small, meaningful untits, allowing more information to be stored at once
How can Mnemonics enhance storage?
They combine information into a single word or phrase, and allow remembering through association
How can Organisation enhance encoding?
By organising information semantically, eg with a visual hierarchy, information is encoded both semantically and visually