Flashcards in Social Psychology Deck (105):
What is Obedience?
Explicit social influence, direct order, power imbalance.
What were the scripted reactions in Milgram's study?
75v Grunt of pain,
120v shouted it was too painful
150v demanded to be let out
180v complained of his heart
300v refused to carry on and agonised screams
What is the Stanford Prison Experiment?
A social experiment by Zimbardo, that suggested that we conform to social roles we are placed in
What were the results of the change in location of Milgram's study?
Obedience down from 68% to 47.5%
What were the results of the proximity variation of Milgram (same room)
Same room, 40%
How did obedience change when
orders were given down the phone (milgram)
Via telephone - 20%
Name issues raised when evaluating milgram's studies
Ethical Issues (no debrief)
What did Adam and Galinsky (2012) find about perception of norms?
Participants wearing a white coat performed better when it was labelled a doctors coat, rather than a painters coat, in an attention task
What did Jenness (1932) find about establishment and gravitation towards social norms?
After a group discussion, individual predictions (number of sweets in a jar) gravitated towards the group prediction
What are social norms?
Rules or standards shared by members of a social group, that prescribe appropriate, or desired attitudes and conduct in matters relevant to the group (Turner, 1991)
What was Asch's study (1951) designed to study?
Normative social influence
What were the results of Asch (1951)?
32% mean conformity, 75% conformed at least once, 25% never conformed.
What were the results of the group size variations of Asch
1 stooge: 3%
2 stooges: 14%
3 stooges: 32%
What were the results of the unanimity variation of Asch?
1 dissenter, drops to 5.5%
What changes were seen as task difficulty increased (Asch)
What were the results of the Asch variation, by Shaw, Rothschild & Strickland, 1957 , with differing social support?
What is the type of conformity where you conform in public but not private
What may mitivate conformity, other than normative and informational social influence?
a desire for a pleasant atmosphere, a common motivation in collectivist cultures (Bond and Smith, 1996)
What is an attitude?
“The affect for or against a psychological object” (Thurstone, 1931)
What are the three parts of the ABC model of attitudes?
Affect (eg killing foxes is bad)
Behaviour (eg signing petitions)
Cognition (eg cognitive arguments to defend affect)
What predicts what in the ABC model of attitudes?
Affect and Cognition predicts behaviour
How are attitudes formed?
mere exposure effect (Zajonc, 1968)
How do we measure attitudes?
Self Report - Likert scales, 5/7/9 point scales
How might we covertly measure attitudes?
Body language or physiological markers
What is the implicit association test?
A test using reaction times to reveal unconscious attitudes
What are cognitive consistency theories?
We strive to be consistent in our thought, if we are inconsistent we feel emotionally uncomfortable (dissonance) and strive to change (Festinger)
What did LaPiere (1934) find about dissonance between attitude and behaviour?
While studying anti-chinese sentiment, found that 118 hotels and restaurants said they wouldn't serve a chinese couple, but only 1 had actually refused 6 months before
What did Wicker(1969) say about attitude and behaviour?
We do what we say about 2-3 times in 100
How might specificity affect the ability to predict behaviour from attitudes?
A general attitude will only predict general behaviour but a specific attitude may predict specific behaviour
How does self awareness affect the ability to predict behaviour from attitudes?
Increased self-awareness promotes a-b consistency, Diener and Walbom, 1976, Cheating alone, 71%, cheating in front of a mirror, 7%
What two methods can be used to change attitudes?
Persuasive communication – what’s effective, e.g. political propaganda, health messages, advertising etc.
2. Cognitive dissonance – changing behaviour first
What is Asch's configural model of impression formation? (1946)
We assign a numerical value (+ve or -ve) to a trait. Weighted average (weight depending on purpose of relationship) = impression
What is the Gestalt model of impression formation?
central traits influence the overall impression, more than peripheral traits
The above average effect - Guerin, 1994
Most drivers (even accident prone ones) believe they are above average
What is a stereotype?
A widely shared and simplified evaluation of a social group, that guides perception but can lead to a 'noticing bias', illusory correlations and a 'them and us' mentality
What type of impression is hardest to change?
Negative ones, possibly because they are unusual and distinctive, or because they may signal danger
What influence do schemas have on person perception?
Pre-existing schema, like the halo effect, can create impressions with very little information, but can often be inaccurate
What is the Halo effect?
The belief that someone who is physically attractive is likely to also be intelligent and confident
What are attributional biases?
Where we explain our own behaviour in terms of situational factors, and other's behaviour in terms of dispositional factors
What is the Self Concept?
the collective answers to 'i am' - made up of individual self schemas on dimensions such as intelligence, social awareness etc
What are emotions?
Psychological and physiological reactions to internal or external environments
What are subjective experiences?
The feelings dubbed emotions in layman's terms. Happiness, anger etc
What were the different groups in the suproxin study?
Group 1 - Told side effects of Suproxin
Group 2 - Not told side effects
Group 3 - False Information
Group 4 - Saline Injection
What was the stooge variation in the Suproxin study?
Waited with a calm stooge or an angry stooge
What were the results of the suproxin study?
Participants with no explanation for their physiological sensations, were more susceptible to the confederate (blaming them as the cause)
What theory of emotions does the Suproxin study support?
The James-Lange Theory
What is the Facial Feedback Theory? (Strack, 1988)
Expressions can cause or intensify emotional experiences (but replication only showed small effect size)
What were the results of Kleinmuntz and Szucko's Polygraph study? (1984)
50 thieves, 50 innocents. 1/3 innocents declared guilty, 1/4 guilty declared innocent
What is the James-Lange theory of emotion?
Eliciting stimulus > Physiological Reaction > EMotion. Emotion is the By-product of physiological responses ('I'm scared because i'm crying)
What is the Cannon-Bard theory of emotion?
Subjective experience and physiological arousal are independent responses to stimuli.
What is the process in the Cannon-Bard Theory?
Sensory information sent to the thalamus, which sends messages to the cerebral cortex (emotion) and to internal organs (physiological).
What contradicting views of defining emotion are there?
Ekman - Emotions based on universal facial expressions, other suggestions are that a basic emotion needs a defined and identifiable neural circuitry
What suggests a universal and innate ability to produce (and read) facial expressions?
Theyre seen across cultures and in primates also
Why might facial expressions be beneficial evolutionarily?
Ability to communicate basic emotions might aid survival, then able to reproduce etc
How many basic Emotions did Eckman (1992) suggest?
How many basic emotions did Plutchick (1980) suggest?
What are the adaptive functions of emotions?
Personal survival is aided by fear and alarm, emotions also influence communication, relationships etc
What evidence is there that emotions may aid threat identification and survival?
MacLeod (1986) found using a dot probe task, that highly anxious people responded faster when the dot replaced a threat word
What is friendship?
Usually the first relationship outside family, plays a similar role to familial relationships
How important is similarity in the formation of relationships?
We tend to like people with similar age, attitude etc. Kerckoff and Davis (1962) stated that after proximity, similarity in attitudes was the next filter for relationship formation
What are the functions of friendship?
What study suggested that physical separation is a common cause for the end of friendships?
Which study on selecting a partner suggests that the first filter is proximity?
Filter Theory, Kerckoff and Davis, 1962
What study suggested that familiarity improves likelihood of 'being liked'
Reis et al, 2011. Confederate attended class, 0, 5, 10 15 times. Higher attendance increased likelihood to be liked by classmates
What is the Halo Effect?
Dion et al (1972) - more attractive faces are more likely to be judged as successful, sociable, knowledgeable
How important is cultural similarity in forming friendships>
In a study on 674 pairs (dyads) of children, chance of friendship increased with gender, age, and full time attendance, no cultural similarity found
Is attractiveness simply perception not evolutionary?
'Average' faces deemed attractive, symmetrical faces, clear skin, shiny hair also
What non-verbal cue might men look for in women?
Men might look for cuteness, or hip to waist ratio, looking for suggestions of fertility
Which study suggested females' preferences for faces changed depending on oestrogen levels?
Law and Smith, 2005)
Who devised the triangular theory of love (1986)?
What are the three points of the triangle theory of love?
Passion, Intimacy, Commitment
Which type of love is intimacy and passion?
Which type of love is Intimacy alone?
Which type of love is Intimacy and commitment?
Which type of love is Commitment alone?
Which type of love is passion and commitment?
Which type of love is passion alone?
Which type of love combines all three points in the triangle?
What type of love do married couples need to form to last?
What did Gupta and Singh (1982) find about cultural expectations and love?
romantic love decreases in love marriages over time, but increases in arranged marriages over time
What three factors create commitment level in Rusbult's investment model?
Comparison (with alternatives)
What are the relationship maintaining techniques in Rusbult's investment model?
Forgiveness, Willingness to sacrifice, Relationship superiority, Derogation of attractiveness
What two explanations of altrusim are based on evolutionary psychology?
What two theories of altruism are based in social psychology?
Internalised Social norms
What is the definition of prosocial behaviour?
Behaviour positively valued by society, eg sharing, charity work, friendship
What is the definition of Helping behaviour?
voluntary behaviour intended to help another
What is Altruism
A form of helping behaviour, with no reward, eg parental self-sacrifice, the good samaritan
What is reciprocal altruism?
helping behaviour that will be re-paid at a future date. Short term cost, long term gain
What animal example of reciprocal altruism did Garter and Wilkinson (2013) study?
Food sharing in the vampire bat
What is the darwinian explanation of altruism?
Darwin actually struggles to explain altruism, natural selection should weed out the costly behaviour
What is the theory of Kin Selection?
Close relatives share genes, helping close relatives ensures genetic survival
What does Kin Selection theory suggest about the influence of genetic relatedness?
The more closely the relation, the greater the likelihood of altruism
What are three ways that helping behaviour can be learnt?
What is the Kin Selection Formula?
R x B > C
What do the letters R, B and C mean in Kin Selection Formula?
B- reproductive benefit (gained by recipient of act)
How do we detect biological kin?
Shared experiences with mother at young age
Past favours and willingness to support
Neural mechanisms (not yet understood)
Which famous murder is an example of the bystander effect?
The murder of Kitty Genovese (1964) - Attack lasted over 30 minutes, 38 witnesses heard her scream
What are the stages of bystander intervention?
Define the situation as an emergency
Decide on an action = give help
What did Latane and Darley (1970) find in their study where smoke came through an air vent for 6 minutes?
Reaction to the 'emergency' was fastest when participants were alone, then with 2 others, and finally with 2 non-responsive stooges
What is pluralistic ignorance?
Relying on another person to define a situation as an emergency
What is diffusion of responsibility?
When in a group, each person pushes responsibility to another member of the group
Why might cost of helping explain bystander apathy?
If costs are too high, people are less likely to help
What did Eagley and Crowley (1986) find about gender differences in helping?
No difference in rate of helping, but
men more likely to help in dangerous situations, women provide more social support in everyday situations.
Men help females (esp. if attractive) whereas women help men and women equally
What was the method of Darley and Latane's 1968 study on the bystander effect?
Group discussion via intercom
1 person reports epilepsy and later has a fit
various conditions, believing different numbers of people were present