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Britain c1785-1875 > Industrialisation and Protest > Flashcards

Flashcards in Industrialisation and Protest Deck (30)
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1

Two examples of new technology in 18th century?

Thomas Newcomen's steam engine (1712) and Spinning Jenny (1770)

2

Number of banks in 1784 compared to 1808 (excluding London)?

1784: 119
1808: 800

3

Role of banks in Industrial Revolution?

Funded private factories, transformed cottage industry to large scale factories and united farmers with industrial centres

4

Population of London in 1751 and 1851?

1751: 650,000
1851: 2.3 million

5

Which acts repealed previous acts to aid laissez-faire free trade?

Repeal of the Statute of Artificiers (1813), Banking Co-partnership Act (1826) and 1846 Repeal of Corn Laws

6

Which Act banned workers' unions for the purpose of improving working conditions?

Combination Act (1799)

7

What did the 1833 Factory Act entail?

Children under 9 could no longer work, those aged 9-13 limited to 8 hours of work and all children under 13 would receive two hours of education a day

8

What did the 1847 Factory Act achieve?

Ten hour day for women and children

9

Which protest began in 1811?

Luddites - protested unemployment due to increased machinery use

10

What and when were the Swing Riots?

1830 - protesting agricultural working conditions

11

Who were the Tolpuddle Martyrs?

1834 - deported to Australia for breachingIllegal Oaths Act by starting a 'friendly society' to combat poor agricultural working conditions

12

How much were the Tolpuddle Martyrs being paid?

Initially seven shillings when they began protest, fell to six shillings

13

Why did the Blanketeers march in 1817?

Over the desperate state of the textile industry in Lancashire and to protest the suspension of Habeas Corpus

14

What was the Peterloo Massacre?

1819 - cavalry charged into a crowd of 80,000 that had gathered to demand the reform of parliamentary representation

15

Deaths and injuries during Peterloo Massacre?

18 deaths
400-700 non-fatal injuries

16

How many machines had then Luddites destroyed by 1812 in Nottingham alone?

Over 1000 with an estimated cost of £6,000-£10,000

17

How many people did the cotton trade employ by 1833?

833,000

18

Population of London in 1851?

2.3 million

19

What did the Municipal Corporations Act of 1835 do?

Allowed local councils to take over utilities like sewage and water

20

What did the 1819 Factory Act do?

Limited child labour to 12 hours a day

21

Which act disallowed women and boys under 10 from working underground?

1842 Mining Act (Sponsored by Lord Ashley)

22

Which Act limited the number of workday hours to 10?

Ten Hour Act 1847

23

What percentage of houses in Birmingham were back-to-backs in 1801?

67%

24

Coal production 1770 and 1850?

1770: 6 million tons
1850: 55 million tons

25

What percentage of the working population were under the age of 20 in 1821?

49%

26

How many Luddites were executed in 1812?

14

27

How many people arrested during Swing Riots (1830)?

1976 people
19 executed
800+ acquitted

28

What did the 1856 Factory Act do?

Repealed some safety features from the 1844 Factory Act

29

Which Acts put burials in control of the local council?

Burial Acts 1852, 1854 and 1857

30

What did the 1866 Sanitary Act achieve?

Sanitation inspections became compulsory for local corporations; criminal offence to fail to quarantine diseased areas