Infectious disease is caused by a microorganism that can transfer to new individuals. An infectious disease is a disease caused by a microorganism and therefore potentially infinitely transferable to new individuals. It may or may not be communicable.
Communicable disease is readily transmitted from one individual to another. An example of a non-communicable disease is disease caused by toxins from food poisoning or infection caused by toxins in the environment, such as tetanus.
A communicable disease on the other hand is an infectious disease that is contagious and which can be transmitted from one source to another by infectious bacteria or viral organisms.
mixture of pig, bird, and human viruses
bacteria in intestinal tract of humans and animals
caused by tick-borne spirochete
Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS)
caused by coronavirus SARS-CoV. Has a spike, envelope and nucleocaspid. Has a defined receptor binding domain. Binds to ACE 2. Causes upper and lower respiratory tract infections.
Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS)
caused by a coronavirus MERS-CoV
Most recent emerging infection; has a 30% death rate
First seen in Saudi Arabia
Can transfer from person to person; may have come from camels or bats
bacteria that spreads through respiratory secretions
bacteria that causes muscle paralysis
acute bacterial infection that can occur in three forms
Cutaneous, intestinal, or inhalation
variola pox virus spreads through respiratory secretion
Tularemia (rabbit or deer-fly fever)
bacteria that causes pneumonia-like infection
Viral hemorrhagic fevers
highly infectious viruses that damage multiple organ systems
West Nile Virus
transmitted to humans via the bite of an infected mosquito
protozoa from an infected mosquito; parasites travel to liver; change to merozites that enter and destroy red blood cells
2 examples of viral infections?
Common cold of coryza: virus of upper respiratory tract
Influenza: acute viral infection of the respiratory system
2 examples of multidrug-resistant organisms
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae (PRSP)
2 types of immunosuppressant diseases?
Chronic fatigue syndrome: persistent, debilitating fatigue; difficult to treat; also called benign myalgic encephalomyelitis
HIV infection/AIDS: viral infection that destroys the T4 lymphocytes; no cure, but antiviral medications suppress the virus
2 examples of Infectious and communicable diseases of childhood and adolescence
Infectious diarrheal disease: generally transmitted through fecal-oral route; 20 million cases a year
Rubeola (measles): highly communicable respiratory infection; prevented by vaccine
Rubella (3-day measles): caused by rubella virus characterized by fever and rash; dangerous to pregnant women
characterized by fever and inflammation of the parotid salivary glands caused by mumps paramyxovirus; prevented by vaccine
varicella-zoster virus causes rash that goes from macule to papule to vesicles, then crusts; prevented by vaccine; reappears as shingles in later life
Erythema infectiosum (Fifth disease)
caused by human parvovirus B19; transmitted by respiratory secretions characterized by facial rash
(whooping cough): bacteria causes highly infectious respiratory disease with a repetitious, paroxysmal cough and prolonged harsh or shrill sound during inhalation; prevented by vaccine
creates a membrane-like coating over mucous membrane surfaces; can block airways; prevented by vaccine
life-threatening disease causing skeletal muscle contractions; comes from the environment; prevented by vaccine
suspension of infectious agents, components of the agents, or genetically engineered antigens given for purpose of establishing resistance to an infectious disease
Two general classes of vaccines
Live attenuated agent
Inactivated agents obtained through genetic mutation