Flashcards in Infectious Disease Control: Biosecurity Deck (21):
Any practice or system that prevents the spread of infectious agents from infected animals to susceptible animals or prevents the introduction of infected animals into a herd, region or country in which the infection has not yet occurred
Prevention of disease agents entering a non-infected farm
Prevention of disease agents spreading within an infected farm or leaving a farm
What are the different levels where biosecurity is implemented?
Regional (e.g. EU)
What is the aim of global biosecurity? Name a successful example.
Control of infectious disease and eradication programmes to eliminate infectious risks
What is the aim of regional biosecurity? Name a disease example.
Continent wide eradication and prevention of introduction of disease through risk assessments, illegal transport prevention and public awareness
e.g. FMD kept out of EU
What is the aim of national biosecurity?
To protect the national livestock population and trade through surveillance, disease control measures and contingency planning (needs to be up to date as industry evolves)
What is the aim of local biosecurity?
To protect your own health and herds from infectious disease by eradication, keeping disease free (risk factors and preventative measures) and reducing the economical and clinical impact of introduction of disease
Who is responsible for global and regional biosecurity?
What do they do?
WHO, OIE, EU
Risk assessments, trade, financial incentives, available resources
What are the limitations of global and regional biosecurity?
Risks are increasing as there is more travel around the world, resources are decreasing so need to import/export more, trade in animal products and diseases, expanding livestock area
Who is responsible for national biosecurity and how do they achieve it?
APHA and Defra
Risk assessments, trade, financial incentives and available resources
What are the limitations of national biosecurity?
National boundaries aren't secure, seas are better but flying animals/insects can still cross them and spread disease
Who is responsible for local biosecurity?
Government? Owners? Keepers? Vets?
What are potential risk factors for disease introduction onto a farm?
More than 100 cows, mixed herd, contact with other ruminant animals, farm less than 2 miles away, introduction of > 1 cow, mixing of different herds, non-professional visitors on the farm, over the fence contact of cattle, overall boots and disinfectant dip, professional visitors on the farm, surface water as drinking source, use of shared equipment
How does increased herd size affect likelihood of disease?
Larger herd size is associated with higher odds of the presence of BVDV and BHV-1 (IBR) as well as L. hardjo
How does purchase of animals in the last year relate to disease presence?
Increases the odds of BVDV (if dogs on farm), BHV-1 (IBR) and L. hardjo
How does veterinary advise on purchasing of animals impact on disease presence?
Lowers the odds of L. hardjo and MAP
What factors were found to have no effect on the odds of disease presence?
Veterinary practice, contact with adjacent animals or disinfection of visitors/vehicles
What are the problems with uptake of biosecurity measures?
Disease status is often not known and farmer will accept losses as they are hidden
Urgent cases of animals that are sick often distract from herd health planning
Often not the most important economic loss on the farm
Going to markets is a social activity that it can be hard to get the farmer to break
How does prevention of disease spread differ from biosecurity?
Essentially the same except measures are focused internally on the farm rather than externally