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Flashcards in Introduction to Food Hygiene Deck (42):

What is encompassed in the food chain?

Pre-harvest feed, housing, hygiene, treatments
Harvest collecting, milking, slaughter, cutting, cold store
Post-harvest processing, transport, storage
Consumer handling


How is food safety controlled at the pre-harvest level?

Control of animal feed, good farm management, animal health, minimise risk of foodborne illness


Define meat

Edible parts of domestic ungulates, poultry, lagomorphs, wild game and farmed game including blood


Define milk

The normal mammary secretion of milking animals obtained from one or more milkings without either addition to it or extraction from it intended for consumption as a liquid milk or further processing


What are the steps of slaughtering?

Stunning, sticking, evisceration, splitting, dressing, chilling, cutting, de-boning


What are the steps along the slaughter process where there is potential for meat contamination?

Bleeding, dehiding/defleecing, evisceration, dressing, chilling


What are FBOs responsible for?

Responsible for ensuring that the food they produce is safe to eat by implementing food safety management procedures and adequate working practices


What are the two main strategies for risk control used by FBOs?

Hazard analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) and Good Manufacturing Practices (GMPs)


What does the process of HACCP involve?

Planning, implementing, monitoring and taking action if food safety is at risk and documenting it


What is hazard analysis?

Identification of all likely public health hazards associated with the operation, assessment of the risk of their occuring and identification of related control measures


What is involved in identification of critical control points (CCP)?

Identification of the process steps where hazards pose a high-level risk so must be controlled


What is involved in establishing critical limits at each CCP?

Defining the line between acceptable and unacceptable hazard related values from the safety aspect at individual CCPs


What is involved in the monitoring of each CCP?

Establishing the system for monitoring whether hazards are effectively controlled at all the CCPs


What is involved with the corrective actions at each CCP?

Development of actions or procedures to prevent transfer of hazards posing unacceptable risk to consumers if CCPs get out of control


What is HACCP verification or validation?

Proving that all the measures are working and that all hazards are controlled


What is HACCP documentation?

Practical, record-based proof that the checking/action activities are carried out and effective


What are GMPs?

Quality procedures in place to ensure the integrity of a production process described by standard operating procedures (SOPs)


Why are GMPs necessary?

To ensure the safety and suitability of food and are referred to as Good Hygiene Practices (GHPs)


What are GHPs?

The basic hygiene measures that should be in place


How do HACCP and GMP work together?

HACCP controls significant food safety hazards
GMPs control other hazards not considered significant


What are the key sources of milk contamination?

Microbiological - faecal contamination, milking equipment or hands, interior of the udder
Chemical - veterinary residues, cleaning chemicals
Physical - perished components in milking machines an bulk tanks, dust, bedding materials, insects


What are the 4 pillars of food safety of milk on a farm?

Animal health
Animal cleanliness
Milking area and process
Equipment, milk storage and staff


What is involved in animal health pillar of milk safety?

Milk for human consumption must come from animals in good health


What is involved in animal cleanliness pillar of milk safety?

Must have clean teats and udders prior to milking
Manage housing in a way that avoids soiling of animals


What is involved in the milking area and process pillar of milk safety?

Constructed to ensure hygienic conditions
Area and surroundings kept clean
Clean water available
Clean teat and udders before milking
Reject milk with abnormalities
Use teat dips


What is involved in the equipment, milk storage and staff pillar of milk safety?

Equipment kept clean and in good condition
Clean, disinfect and rinse equipment post-milking
Protect milk from contamination
Clean and disinfect bulk tanks between collection
Exclude animals from storage room
Control insects, rodents and birds on premises


What is the General Food Law?

Creates general principles and requirements of food law across Europe


What is the aim of the General Food Law?

To provide a framework to ensure a coherent approach in the development of food legislation


What are the general objectives of the General Food Law?

Ensuring a high level of protection of human life and health taking into account the protection of animal health and welfare, plant health and the environment


What does transparency of the General Food Law aim to do?

Increased consumer confidence by transparency of legislation and better communication about food safety and the evaluation and expansion of potential risks


What is the concept of risk analysis?

Structured transparent approach to deal with undesired events that might happen in the future


What are the elements of risk analysis?

Risk assessment
Risk management
Risk communication


What is traceability?

The possibility to identify and follow a food item along the food chain


What is tracing forwards?

Re-call of products


What is tracing backwards?

Identification of the source of a problem


What is the purpose of microbiological testing?

To assess whether microbiological criteria are met


What is the microbiological criterion?

Defines the acceptability of a product or process based on the presence/absence/number of micro-organisms or that quantity of toxins/metabolites


What is the food safety criterion?

Defines the acceptability of a product to be put on the market


How is risk managed in production of animal derived food?

FBO, HACCP, GMP, GHP, Traceability, Microbiological criteria


What is the role of the competent authority?

Enforcement of legislation, verification, auditing of FBOs


What risk management is performed by the consumer?

Cold chain
Handling/preparation time


What is risk communication?

Continuing exchange of facts, views and beliefs on risks between stakeholders, essential for compliance