Flashcards in Infectious Disease Control: Tools Deck (13):
What are five tools for disease control?
Test and cull
On what levels can a test and cull be performed? Which diseases apply to each level?
Individual level = if animal is positive it is culled - bTB, Johnes, PI BVD
Herd level = if animal is positive the whole herd is culled - FMD, BSE
Local level = if animal is positive then all animals in a defined area are culled - FMD during outbreak (outside in/inside out)
Who pays for the test and cull?
If disease is endemic = farmer
If disease is epidemic = government
If disease is zoonotic or in between = farmer/government
How does timing affect vaccination strategy?
Seasonal disease = do at right time of year
Ensure you leave enough time for body to achieve protective antibody response
What are some different vaccination strategies?
Buffer area for example FMD
Whole country for example BTV (bluetongue)
Dependent on threat for example NCD (newcastle disease)
What levels can vaccination be performed on?
Herd or area/country
How effective is a vaccine in an endemic situation?
Depends on the vaccine
BVD/Lepto = poor unless other methods used in conjunction
Salmonella = mediocre
IBR/Clostridium = good
Why are movement restrictions important?
Animals (hosts) are the best media to transport disease over a long period in time and a long distance
How long should movement restrictions last?
At least 72 hours especially for highly infectious diseases such as FMD, CSF, bTB and Brucella abortus
What needs to be considered in movement restrictions?
Do any other species need to be involved e.g. horses
Stop movement by vehicle and foot
Public footpaths closed
What is zoning and when is it used?
When the disease is mainly localised in an area and the movement restrictions can be lifted in the non affected areas
What is surveillance?
The repeated measurement, recording and review of data related to the occurrence of events such as disease