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Social Facilitation - Triplett's Hypothesis

The increased performance that occurs in the presence of co-actors or an audience


Complications of Triplett's Hypothesis

in some cases, the presence of others can hinder performance in certain tasks


Zajonc's Solution

the presence of others increases arousal to improve performance on simple tasks and decrease performance on complex tasks


Bandura's Social Learning Theory

you can learn certain behaviours by modelling and imitating the behaviour of others without the requirement of explicit reinforcement to devlop


Bobo Doll Experiment

adult would model aggressive or passive behaviour, where the model of aggressive behaviour lead to aggressive behaviour in the child (and same for passive behaviour)


Muzafer Sherif's AutoKinetic Effect

red dot is mistaken for movement - after several days of testing, responses will gradually converge with the others, despite different starting points.


Asch's Line Test

confederates agree on clearly incorrect answers, but after a while subjects would conform and say the same answer as everyone else


Normative Function

the role of others in setting standards for our conduct based on a fear of rejection


Comparative Function

the role of others in providing information about an ambiguous situation


Risky Shift

Group decision making strengthens the original inclinations of the individual group members. (move towards the closer extreme)



a group decision environment that occurs when a group cohesiveness becomes so strong that it overrides realistic appraisals of reality and alternative opinions


Ways groupthink can be prevented

be impartial
critical evaluation
devils advocate
subdivide the group
provide a second chance


Kitty Genovese

an example of the bystander effect


Bystander Effect

the presence of others reduces helping behaviour


Questions required to respond

Is it an emergency?
Is my response required?


Collective Ignorance

When each individual in a group see nobody responding in a given situation, they conclude that the situation is not an emergency (trying not to overreact when other people are around - everyone else is doing the same thing)


Diffusion of Responsibility

In deciding whether we have to act, we determine that someone else in the group is more qualified


How to ensure that help is recieved

single out someone in the crowd to help out
seeing someone else help would increase helpful behaviour


Social Loafing

individuals are less motivated when working in a group than alone - tendency to take a free ride in a group


Milgram's Experiment

Subject increasingly shocks the learner answers a wrong question and reaches a point where the learner sounds to be in serious pain and desperate to quit. Subject is influenced by authority to keep going despite cries of pain

65% obeyed! - most people would say that they wouldn't continue but actual data says differently


Implications of Milgram's Experiment

there is a strong tendency of obedience towards authority, and you aren't an accurate judge on how you would behave in a given situation


Factors that affect Milgram's Experiment

Increase in Prestige of faculty - increased obedience
Professional to Grad student - lowered obedience
Decrease in Proximity of teacher to experimenter - lowered obedience
Increased Distance between subject and learner - decreased obedience


Holfing et al. Study

Doctor asked nurse to administer a drug which by doing so would violate several rules
Tendency to obey can be irresistible under a variety of circumstances and you can never know how you are going to act placed in a given situation


Cognitive Dissonance

Your attitudes aren't always consistent with your behaiour


Festinger and Carlsmith Experiment

Lying to next subject about experience for $1 or $20 - $1 rated more positively, $20 said they did it for the money, while $1 had less justification and changed their attitude to match their behaviour


Overjustification Effect

external incentive in money or prizes decreases a person's motivation to perform and cognitive dissonance


Zimbardo's Stanford Prison Experiment

Subjects assigned to be guards and prisoners, where prisoners agreed to have suspended civil liberties and guards were told to maintain degree of order.
Was cut short because guards showed sadistic, dehumanizing behaviour (despite previous psychological stability screening) and prisoners experienced depression and anxiety and believed they wouldn't get out.

Reveals power of circumstance and assigned roles on behaviour (deindividuation)



in a group setting, (anonymity leads to) the loss of a sense of personal responsibility and restraint


Persuasive Communicator

Similarity to communicator - Lifestyle Choice
Credibility of communicator - Objective Fact
Physical Attractiveness
Concise speech, speech speed, eye contact


Persuasive Message

One sided if audience is initially in agreement
Two-sided if audience is initially in disagreement


Central Appeal

well reasoned, factual, two-sided arguments are more effective for intelligent audiences


Peripheral Appeal

well presented, easy to understand messages are more effective for unintelligent audiences


Foot in the Door Effect

a gradual escalation of demands increases obedience - a request that seems outrageous in isolation seems more reasonable in increasing magnitude


Low Ball Technique

an escalation of the term of an agreement after someone has already agreed - announcing additional costs after low cost is found attractive

Involves cognitive dissonance