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Flashcards in Classical Conditioning Deck (26):
1

Classical Conditioning

the unconscious learning of a contingency between a particular signal and a later even that are paired in time and/or space.

2

Pavlov

Founded classical conditioning. Was interested in the stages of digestion in dogs (salvation before food reached their mouth). Used the metronome to illicit salvation.

3

Contingency

the presentation of one stimulus reliably leads to the presentation of another. Occurs when an organism learns an association between a signal and an event, and can eventually respond the signal before the event even occurs.
Can promote survival.

4

Unconditional Stimulus (US)

a stimulus that occurs unconditionally and automatically triggers a response in the absence of any learning. Occurs naturally.

5

Unconditional Response (UR)

specific response triggered by an unconditional stimulus which occurs naturally, prior to any learning. Usually a biologically programmed reflex.

6

Conditional Stimulus (CS)

previously neutral stimulus that becomes associated with an unconditional stimulus to produce a learned contingency and eventually trigger a response on its own.

7

Conditioned Response (CR)

when the conditional stimulus is paired with an unconditional stimulus and a contingency has been learned, it elicits a conditional response (same as unconditional response)

8

Acquisition

the process by which the contingency between a CS and US is learned. Typically requires many trials, but sometimes can occur quickly in certain situations.

9

Extinction

loss of CR when CS no longer predicts US.

10

New Inhibitory Response

a new learned response that competes with the original learned contingency and occurs during extinction, when the CS becomes an unreliable prediction of the US. Suggests that CS is not completely unlearned.

11

Extinction Procedure

CS is repeatedly presented in absence of the US

12

Spontaneous Recovery

Suggests that extinction involves a new inhibitory learned response.

13

Generalization

classical conditioning learned responses to a variety of stimuli. Stimuli similar to CS will elicit a similar response

14

Generalization Gradient

a normal distribution of stimuli that elicit a CR that varies in degree, depending on how similar or different a stimulus is to the original CS. Flattens when extinction occurs.

15

Discrimination

restricts the range of conditional stimuli that can elicit a response. Narrows generalization gradient.

16

Generalization vs. Discrimination

generalization adds flexibility and efficiency to classical conditioning. Discrimination refines the learning process.

17

CS+

predicts the presence of an unconditional stimulus

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CS-

predicts the absence of an unconditional stimulus.

19

Phobia

exaggerated, intense and persistent fear of certain situations, activities, things or people.

20

Implosive Therapy

an individual with a particular phobia is encouraged to confront the CS that invokes their anxiety. The CS is presented in the absence of US. Can be traumatic

21

Systematic Desensitization

uses a more gradual exposure to the feared CS. Starting at end of generalization gradient and working toward the middle.

22

Compensatory Responses

a process which counteracts a challenge to homeostasis

23

Homeostasis

a conditional stimulus acts as a preparatory signal to help an organism anticipate an important biological event.

24

Withdrawal Symptoms

Can be explained through classical conditioning and homeostasis. It is a conditioned compensatory response that is triggered by an environmental cue (CS).

25

Reacquisition

after extinction, the CR is paired with US again occurring faster than initially, therefore, it is not a case of forgetting

26

Latent Learning

acquiring associations that are not immediately expressed, or used only in certain situations