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Psychology > Memory > Flashcards

Flashcards in Memory Deck (25):

Video Camera Analogy

accurately stores audio and video to be played back at a later time


Filing Cabinet Analogy

we create memory files that are stored in a filing cabinet system to later be accessed to remember something.


Computer Analogy

specialized components are specialized for handling different memories at different times


Memory Metaphors

all misleading - assumes that memory is stored in original, undisturbed form and memory retrieval is as simple as accessing a stored item from a specific place. memory is actually subject to interpretations and reconstruction.



one memory acts as a cue to trigger another - encoding and retrieval are linked through cues.

Subjects who were distracted between encoding and recall performed worse

Developed the forgetting curve - faster immediately, fewer and fewer over time



asked to freely generate as many items as he can remember from a list provided (short answer)



Given an item and asked whether it was on the original list provided or not (multiple choice)


Multi-Store Model

consists of
Short Term Memory - incoming stimuli enter this first (not stored permanently) and can be transferred to long-term after rehearsal
Long Term Memory - permanent storage (unlimited)


Short Term Memory Capacity

can remember 7+/-2 items (or chunks)



if stopped, short term memory fades



chunks of meaningful packets to expand capacity (groups that from words pack more info)


Primacy Effect

items encoded early int he list are remembered faster because items at the beginning are first to enter short term memory and have the most opportunity to be rehearsed


Recency Effect

least opportunity for rehearsal, but items at the end of the list are remembered better because all encoded info is sent to short term memory buffer and capacity is 7+/-2 items - as you go through the list, the newer items replace the older items in short term memory buffer, so when you reach the end of the list, the last 7 items are replaced by new items and remain in short term memory.


Improved Primacy Effect

influenced by ability to rehearse items, where increased time to rehearse leads to an increase in primacy effect (longer intervals between given items is better)


Shallow level processing

Encode physical characteristics
Encoding requires little effort
Poor memory performance


Diminished Recency Effect

influenced by contents of short term memory, where disrupting events diminishes recency


Deeper level processing

Encode semantic characteristics
Encoding requires significant effort
Better memory performance


Craik and Lockhart Experiment

Manipulated levels of encoding by presenting subjects with a list of words that can be judged on different properties

shallow - physical aspects of the text
Moderate - acoustics (rhyming)
Deep- semantic judgements

The more we try to understand and organize material, the better we remember it (paying attention to surface details leads to poor recall)


Encoding specificity

How memory encodes all aspects of specific experiences (surroundings as well as content) - environmental cues are incorporated.


Scuba divers experiment

Subjects had a better time recalling when asked to recall in same environment as when encoding took place


Lost in mall experiment

Asked to remember a list of childhood experiences, but one of them was fake - after 3 days, subjects remembered fake experience as being something that actually took place


Vending machine experiment

Having imagined a bizarre action allowed subjects to believe that they actually did it



The ease with which an experience is processed, some experiences are easier (more fluent) than others

Familiar experiences are processed more fluently



Judgement tying together causes with effects

Make attributions to processing of the feeling of familiarity


Becoming famous overnight experiment

Names that were seen before looked familiar are we're attributed to being famous

Immediately - fluency is attributed to familiarity of seeing it on the previous test

24-hour delay - fluency is attributed to fame