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Flashcards in Information Technology Deck (70)
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31

What is a CPU?

Computer Processing Unit

It processes commands within a computer.

32

What is Job Control Language?

It schedules and allocates system resources.

33

What are examples of input devices?

Keyboard
Mouse
Scanner
Magnetic Ink Reader
Magnetic Tape Reader
EDI
Point of Sale Scanner

34

What are examples of Output Devices?

Speakers

Monitors

Printers

35

What are the characteristics of Magnetic Tape storage?

Sequential Access - Sorts data in order

Slower data retrieval

Header Label prevents Operator error by loading wrong tape

External Labels prevent accidental destruction by operator

36

What are the characteristics of Magnetic Disks?

Random Access - Finds data in random spots

Faster data retrieval

Uses Boundary Protection for data

37

What is a Gateway?

Connects one network to another

Note: the Internet is connected by Gateways

38

What are Parity Checks?

A control that detects internal data errors.

A bit is added to each character- it checks to see if a bit was lost.

39

What is an Echo Check?

Transmitted data is returned to the sender for verification (it echoes back to the sender)

40

What is a Change Control?

It authorizes program changes and approves program test results.

41

What is security software?

Software that controls access to IT systems.

Note: Don't confuse this with anti-virus software

42

What is the purpose of a Digital Signature?

It confirms a message has not been altered.

43

List the types of computers from smallest to largest

PDA/Smartphone/Tablet

Microcomputer - PC- Laptop (cost-effective)

Minicomputer - Like a Mainframe- but smaller

Mainframe - Large computer with terminals attached

Supercomputer - Very powerful and very big

44

What are the units of computer data from smallest to largest?

Bit - 1 (on) and 0 (off)
Byte - 8 bits to a byte/character
Field - group of related characters/bytes (i.e. Name- Zip Code- Serial #)
Record - Group of related fields (i.e. Member name- address- phone number)
File - Group of related records (i.e. Membership directory)

45

What is the duty of a design engineer?

Determine language used for a specific computer- on a computer-to-computer basis

46

What are object programs?

Programs written in base computer language- not similar to English.

47

How can source programs be recognized?

They are written in a language close to English.

48

What is the purpose of a Compiler?

Takes Source language (English) and converts to Object (Computer) Language

49

How does Online Analytical Processing work?

It uses a Data Warehouse to support management decision making.

50

What is Data Mining?

Using artificial intelligence and pattern recognition to analyze data stores within a Data Warehouse.

51

What is the purpose of online transaction processing?

To process a company's routine transactions.

52

What are the characteristics of batch processing?

Data held- updates multiple files all at once

Leaves a better audit trail

Uses Grandfather-Father-Son backup (3 levels of backup kept in 3 locations)

53

What does an output control check for?

Checks to see if output data is valid- distributed and used in an authorized manner.

54

What does a processing control check?

Checks if data processing produced proper output

55

What is a hash total?

An input control number- a meaningless sum of values included in the input.

Example would be summing a list of SSNs to make sure the data is the same once entered as it was prior to input into the system.

56

What is a validity check?

Checks to see if data in existing tables or files belongs in the set

For example- is there a # in an alpha-only field or a letter in a numeric-only field

57

What is a limit check?

Checks to see if numbers surpass a certain limit- i.e. in an age field is the number greater than 110.

58

What is a check digit?

An input control that adds an identification number to a set of
digits - usually at the end

59

What is a field check?

An input check that prevents invalid characters- i.e. checks for alphabetic letters in a SSN field

60

What is a Hot Site?

A disaster recovery system where if the main system goes down- a Hot Site is ready to take over immediately.