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Flashcards in Innante And Adaptive Immunity Deck (11)
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Describe the humeral components of the innate immune system

Transferin and lactoferin - deprive microorganisms of iron
Interferons - inhibit viral replication
Lysozome - breaks down peptidoglycan in bacterial cell walls
Firbronectin - opsonise bacteria and promotes their phagocytosis
Complement - cause destruction of micoorganisms directly or with the help of phagocytic cells
TNF alpha - supresses viral replication and activates phagocytes


Describe the cellular components of the innate immune system

Macrophage and monocytes - phagocytes and antigen presenting to lymphocytes. Phagocytosis is enhanced by the coating of antibodies or complement to render it recognisinle as foreign (opsonaisation)
Neutrophils - phagocytoic and antibacterial
Eosinophils - anti-parasite and allergic response
Basophils and mast cells - allergic response
Natural killer cells - recognise and kill abnormal cells


Describe the humeral components of the adaptive immune system

Cytokines - promote the differentiation and proliferation of lymphocytes
Perforin - released by killer T cells -> destroys cell walls
Antibodies - protect host neutralaisation (prevents binding to epithelia) opsonaisation and complement activation


Describe the cellular components of the adaptive immune system

T helper - become activated when Co4 binds to a specefic sntigen on the MHC/ antigen complex of an APC once activated it clones itself to form active t helper and t memory cells
T killer - releases perforin when cell is already infected
B-cells divide to form plasma cells and memory cells release cytokines plasma cells peoduce specefic immunoglobulin for non-self antigen


Describe the innate immune system

Present from birth
Not enhanced by secondary exposure
No memory
Poorly effective without adaptive


Describe the adaptive immune system

Arises from exposure
Specefic pathogen immunity
Enhanced by 2nd exposure
Aquires memory
Poorly effectuve without innate


Describe the cooperation between the innate and adaptive immune systems

The innate immune response is quicker but the adaptive lasts much longer


Describe methods to clear surface epithelia of pathogens

Rapid epithelial regeneration
Flow of tears
Ear wax
Nasal hairs
Mucocillary escalator
Digestive enzy mes
Regular urine


Describe ways surface epithelia block the entry of microorganisms

Mechanical, selectively permeable barrier
Produce natural antibiotics
Motile cillia
Rapidly renewable
Produce cytokines (proteins that alter the behavior of other cells)
Produce chemokines ( which attract other cells)
May produce mucins
Transport antibodies from body to surface esp. Immunoglobulin A


Describe the immune response

Pathogen with non self proteins damages epithelium trying to break through the barrier
Epithelial cells activated upon contact with microorganism
Cytokines and chemokines made by activated epithelia cells


What do inflammatory mediators promote?

Increase vascular permeability which...
-increases fluid leakage from vessels
-extravasation of ab & complement at site of infection
-increased migration of macrophages, neutrophils and lymphocytes
-increased microbicidal activity of macrophages and neutrophils