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What is infection?

Invasion of a host organism by disease causing agents, their multiplication and reaction of host cell

1

What causes infection?

Viruses, bacteria, protozoa, parasites, insects

2

Why do some people get certain infections?

From friends or famoly
Poor hygeine
Poor diet
Airborne
Weakened immune system
Genetic lredisposition

3

What influences the outcome of infection?

Diet
Health of individual
Available treatments
Hygeine
Timely diagnosis and treatment

4

What are the shapes of bacteria?

Staphylococci- ball of beads
Streptococci - caterpillar
Backlli - rods
Diplococci - two

5

Describe bacteria structure

Peptidogylgan cell wall, circular dna/rna

6

Describe virus structure

Can be enveloped, have capsid, no organelles, dna/rna, no reverse transcriptase

7

How does bram staining work?

+(blue) or -(red) depending on cell wall
+vely charged crystal violet binds to -ve cell components
Iodine forms a karbe molecular complex witn crystal violet
Acetone or methanol extract the complexes through the gram negative cell eall
A red dye used to stain the now unstained gram -ve wall

8

How does acid fast work?

Allow us to detect bacterial causes of tb and leprosy that cant be detected by gram staining
As mycoplasmas dont have a cell wall

9

Define pathogen

Disease causing organism (bacterium, virus,other)

10

Define non pathogen

Doesnt cause disease

11

Explain the significance of genome composition for classification and detection of viruses

Rna viruses more likely to mutate as rna less stable

12

Explain the significance of envolope for classification and detection of viruses

Viruses with envolope cant survive if holes in envolope - easy to sterilise

13

Explain the significance of replication strategy for classification and detection of viruses

Rna viruses can use reverse transcriptase (hiv)
Dna viruses use cell machinery (hpv)
Some viruses carry their own replication enzymes

14

Describe some dna enveloped viruses

Hepatitis b - inflamed liver
Herpes - oral genital wall
Smallpox

15

Give an example of a dna non-enveloped virus

Hpv - warts, cervical cancer

16

Give examples of rna enveloped viruses

Hiv - aids
Rubella - rash
Rotavirus - diarrohea
Coronavirus - sars

17

Give examples of rna non-envoloped virus

Polio
Hepatitis a

18

Gibe examples of gram + bacteria

Staphylococcus aureas - food poisoning
Streptococcuspyogenes - flesh eating
Group b streptococci - meningitis
Streptococcus pneumonia - pneumonia
Clostridium difficile - diarrohea

19

Give examples of gram -ve bacteria

Neisseria meningitis
E. Coli
Heliobacter pylori - peptic ulcers

20

Name antibiotics that target bacterial cell walls

Penicillin, amoxicillin

(B lactoms)

21

Antibiotics that target protein synthesis

Gentamicin
Erythromicin
Tetracycline

22

Give example of antifolate drugs

Metronizadole, trimethoprim

23

Define resevoir

Any person,soil,substance in which infectious agent lives

24

Define commensal

Symbiotic relationship where one species derives benefit and the host is unaffected