- Development of schools of Mortuary science
- Agencies, coferences, and councils
- Special interest groups; NFDA supporting mortuary education
- Development of state licensing laws
Mortuary Education; In the Process of Becoming Institutionalized in Funeral Service, Four Identifiable areas Developed:
Were directed mostly toward embalming not funeral directing up to 1970.
- 1925-1927 - eight weeks
- 1928- 1931- three months
- 1955- present- 12 months
- 1960- present- A.A. Degree, Two Years
Schools of Mortuary Science
The emphasis was on embalming with little emphyasis on funeral directing. After Sept. 1977, an equal emphasis wasplaced on embalming and funeral directing. In Sept. 1978, the national board examination was adjusted to two separate exams.
- 500 questions, 250 embalmers, 250 funeral directors
- 2002- 300 questions- 150 science, 150 arts
Prior to Sept, 1977
Equivalency to AA degree was accepted for trade schools.
- Six Day seminars
- Commercial proprietary school
- Non-Commercial proprietary schools
- Non-proprietary, non-profit institution
- The regionally acccredited, publicly funded or tax supported college or university mortuary science program.
5 Distinct Stages Mortuary Science Education from 1882 to the Present has Gone Through
Given by fluid salesmen in bars, behind furniture stores, or by corresponding schools.
The oldest and most traditional owned by fluid and supply companies.
Commercial Proprietary School
Started by the so called embalming scholars after 1900. Their cirriculums were developed solely by the owners of the schools and reflected various individual philosophies. Trade Schools.
Non-Commercial Proprietary Schools
Generally after the owner/founder of the school died or retired, the faculty formed a non-profit stock corporation, many of the original proprietary schools merged into this type of institution.
Non-Proprietary, Non-Profit Institution
The community college programs offering the associate in Applied Science, constitute the majority of schools teaching mortuary science today.
The Regionally Accredited, Publically Funded or Tax Supported College or University Mortuary Science Program
Equivalency to AA degree was accepted for Trade Schools.
- Prof. Auguste Renouard 1839-1912
- A. Johnson Dodge 1848-1920
- Joseph H. Clarke 1840- 1916
- Felix A. Sullivan
- Charles A. Renouard (Aguste's son)
Embalming Scolars Who at the Turn of the Century Initiated and Developed the Field of Mortuary Science
The primary thrust of these scholars. Between 1865 and 1914 their greatest contribution was in publishing numerous works in embalming. Many appeared in Embalmers Monthly Magazine.
Embalming, Not Funeral Directing
Occurred between 1894 and 1914 as the various states developed public health bureaucracies. The concept of institutionalization, as it related to funeral service was supported by state, and by 1894, the national association.
Development of State Boards
Putting order, harmony, and certainty in the minds of those who work within the vocation. Specifically to create a definite image of the occupation in the minds of those who engage in it, emphasizing specific goals and objectives and to project this image into the public psyche (mind).
Was founded in 1962 as the sole accrediting agency for mortuary science programs, later recognized by the United States Office of Education. It was in 1962 that this authority was transferred to the ABFSE by the CFSEB.
- Makes the cirriculum and accredits
American Board of Funeral Service Education (ABFSE)
WAs founded in 1904 by J.H. McCully of Idaville, Indiana. Under its first title it was called "The Joint Conference of Embalmers Examining Boards and State Boards of Health." The organization went through four name changes, and since 1940 has been, as it is today, the CFSEB. This organization is composed of all state boards and the provincial boards of Canada involved in licensing and regulatory profess of the funeral service profession. Now it meets annually in the Spring with ABFSE. Since 1999, ICFSEB International.
- Administers the NBE
International Conference of Funeral Service Examining Boards, Inc. (ICFSEB)
An organization of regionally accredited colleges having mortuary science programs. Its purpose "through higher education and adherence to the highest principals, to advance the profession of funeral service". Its objective is the promotion of mortuary education within the context of degree granting schools of post secondary education. (50 states and District of Columbia, 12 Provinces of Canada (63 votes)).
- Colleges/Universities, Has voting rights in the ABFSE
University Mortuary Science Education Association (UMSEA)
Founded in 1942 as an organization of proprietary schools dedicated to the advancement of mortuary education. Trade Schools and a few Community Colleges.
- Has voting rights in the ABFSE
National Association of Colleges of Mortuary Science (NACMS)
Make up part of the voting structure of the ABFSE. Because of this specialized accreditation they work toward certain objectives.
NACMS, UMSEA, as well as Independent Schools
- Teacher's workshops called "institutes"
- Curriculum revision (ongoing)
- Supply questions to ICFSEB for the NBE
- Textbook glossaries, course outlines, and audio visual aid development.
- Initial accreditation and re-accreditation of all mortuary science programs.
- Scholarship Committee
Objectives of NACMS, UMSEA and Independent Schools
- Committee of Education of NFDA
- Dead Harry G. Sampson
- Institute of Mortuary Research
- NFDA Commission on Mortuary Education
Interest Groups- National Funeral Director Association
1903, a three man committee elected for one to three years to work with the conference to set standards to enter the profession, also in 1929, establsihed "The American Institute of Funeral Directors" (AIFD) which had three goals.
Committee of Education of NFDA
- To establish uniform requirements in all states for licensure
- To provide examination questions and answers to state boards.
- To provide continuing education seminars or "institutes" for those already licensed (Early attempt at mandatory continuing education).
Three Goals of the NFDA
Son of Hudson Sampson, conducted a successful 2 day institute in 1927 at the National Convention in continuing education.
Dean Harry G. Sampson
In 1930, NFDA established this. Their goals were:
- Trouble shoot points of hostility and attacks on organized funeral service by various segments of the media.
- Publish the "Director" magazine, the trade organ of NFDA.
Institute of Mortuary Research
After 1939, the IMR was absorbed into the functions of the executive secretary of this. One person had power over magazine and defending the profession.
Published "The Future of Funeral Service Education" in 1956 based on a national survey, concluded with 58 recommendations for revision and upgrading educational standards. A few most important revisions.
NFDA Commission on Mortuary Education
- Establishing a morticians license combining both funeral director and embalmer into one license. (MD 1963, VA 1969, PA 1952)
- At least three years of secondary education be required for this single license; either 2 year general education plus 1 year Mortuary Science or an academically integrated program leading to AA degree.
- That mortuary science cirrculums, as well as licensing examinations, relfect equal emphasis in training funeral directors and embalmers.
- Change in the name of the joint Committee on Mortuary Education to ABFSE by 1959.
Important Revisions- NFDA Commission on Mortuary Education
In 1962, the ICFSEB relinquished accreditation authority to ABFSE that had been established in 1959. From 1960 to March 16, 1972, the ABFSE worked for and gained accreditation recognition. This was the most significant accomplishment in institutional growth for mortuary science education. The ABFSE has controlled accreditation since 1962.
The ICFSEB was Denied Accreditation Rights Recognition in 1956 by the US Office of Education