Flashcards in Insulin Resistance Deck (80)
why do we get fat?
why is obesity a problem?
Because it leads to insulin resistance which leada to diabetes.
High insulin is a cause and consequence of fat gain.
to pass through
sweet or honeyed
Where is insulin synthesized?
in the pancreatic beta cells
what are some ways we can check for insulin production?
you can check insulin levels but some people have anti insulin antibodies so in cases like that we can check the c-peptide levels bc we release that along with insulin into our blood stream. That way we can see if we are even producing insulin.
generation of glucose
how does blood glucose increase?
increase in uptake from digestive tract
increase glucose recovery from the kidneys
increase glucose release form the liver.
how is glucose recovered from the kidneys or up taken from the digestive tract?
glucose is transported against a concentration gradient by a sodium glucose symport.
Present in epithelial cells in the gut and kidney. They utilize the Na gradient as the energy source for glucose transport
what would happen if we has a sodium free diet?
our blood glucose levels would be really low because we wouldnt have the Na necessary for the SGLT. Glucose would be stuck in our kidneys or intestines
Which organ is the only one who can dephosphorilate glucose?
why doesn't glucose leave cells?
because once it is in a cell that wants it, it is phosphorilated and can't pass.
get glucose in and out of all cells of the body.
how many types of glucose transporters are there?
which glucose transporters are not regulated by insulin?
GLUT 1-3 and 5-13. they are found in the RBCs, brain, kidney, liver, intestine, etc.
which glucose transporters are regulated by insulin?
glucose can only go into the cell is insulin is present.
Found in skeletal muscle, cardiac muscle, and adipocytes.
When is insulin acutely high?
Insulin is highest after breakfast, then dinner and then lunch.
When is insulin chronically high?
when you are insulin resistant (pre-diabetes) or when you have type II diabetes
how does your sympathetic nervous system regulate insulin?
it increases glucagon and decreases insulin
how does your parasympathetic nervous system regulate insulin?
increases insulin and decreases glucagon release.
What does thinking about food, relaxation, etc do to insulin?
it increases insulin and reduces glucagon
what does stress do to insulin?
decreases insulin and increases glucagon
which cells have insulin receptors
all cells have insulin receptors but muscle, cardiac, and adipose cells need it the most.
what does insulin do to your liver?
tells liver to make fat and glycogen
what does insulin do to your muscle cells?
causes glucose uptake and anabolism. muscle growth.
what does glucose do to your adipose cells?
activates glucose uptake, lipogenesis and adipogenesis
role of glucagon
glucagon has the opposite affects as insulin
what is the primary regulator of insulin and glucagon release?
plasma glucose concentration