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Flashcards in Cardio Disorders Deck (132)
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1

cardiovascular/heart disease

disease of the heart and/or blood vessels

2

heart disease is considered a consequence of

atherosclerosis

3

what are the effects of atherosclerosis?

thickening and hardening in the artery wall

4

what causes the effects of atherosclerosis?

thickening and hardening is caused by an accumulation of lipid-laden macrophages in the arterial wall.
increased inflammation signals

5

atherosclerosis is a consequence and cause of

increased blood pressure

6

atherosclerosis increases risk of

cardiovascular infarction
cerebrovascular infarction

7

atherosclerosis is thought to stem from

cholesterol

8

what does high blood pressure cause?

tearing of endothelium and therefore inflammation.
turbulent flow in a blood vessel

9

where is turbulent flow most apparent?

in areas of branching or constriction of the blood vessel

10

turbulent flow damages:

endothelium

11

A type LDL cholesterol is

large and less dense

12

B type LDL cholesterol is

Small and more dense

13

what are the risk factors for pattern B LDL cholesterol

Genetic
oral contraceptives
diet

14

what can increase your levels of patten B LDL cholesterol?

a very low fat high carb diet

15

dietary cholesterol has ____ impact on blood cholesterol

little

16

increased consumption leads to ____ absorption

reduced

17

where does most circulating cholesterol come from?

it is synthesized de novo

18

where is cholesterol synthesized?

80% in the liver
10% in intestine
5% in skin

19

what is the most potent activator of de novo cholesterol synthesis?

insulin

20

what is related to increased cholesterol synthesis?

increased fasting insulin.

21

what increases cholesterol synthesis from the liver?

insulin-stimulating meals

22

what are the most widely prescribed drug in the world?

statins

23

HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors

statins

24

what do HMG-CoA reductase do?

they play a role in synthesizing cholesterol in the liver.

25

which group of people do statins help the most?

people with previous history of cardiovascular event. They don't really help other people

26

what are some of the side effects of statins?

increased risk of diabetes (T2)
kidney failure
liver failure
muscle pain (muscle break down)

27

what is normal blood pressure

systolic: 90-119
diastolic: 60-79

28

what is prehypertension BP?

systolic: 120-139
Diastolic: 80-89

29

What is stage one (primary) hypertension BP?

systolic: 140-159
Diastolic: 90-99

30

what is stage 2 (secondary) hypertension BP?

Systolic: eq > 160
diastolic: eq > 100