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Flashcards in Cancer Deck (47):
1

Benign tumor

grows slowly
well defined capsule
not invasive
well differentiated
low mitotic index
does not metastasize

2

malignant tumor

grows rapidly
not encapsulated
invasive
poorly differentiated
high mitotic index
can spread distantly (metastasis)

3

-oma

benign

4

carcinoma

malignant epithelial tumors

5

adenocarcinoma

cancer tumor from ductal or glandular strustures

6

adenoma

benign tumor in ductal or glandular structures

7

sarcoma

malignant connective tissue (non-epithelial) tumors
chondrosarcoma-tumor in cartilage
osteosarcoma-bone cancer

8

lymphomas

cancers of lymphatic tissue

9

leukemias

cancers of blood-forming cell

10

dysplasia

starting to lose differentiation

11

in situ neoplasm

poorly differentiated but not breaking into other tissues

12

invasive neoplasm

starts to spread bc it broke through the bottom layer and gets into the lymphatic system. metastisizes

13

anaplasia

absence of differentiation

14

benign tumors

resemble their cell of origin (well differntiated) but they do not have the normal function.

15

cell cycle check point

there are two check point in the cell cycle (at the end of each G phase). if the cell is not looking good then it goes through apoptosis. cancer cells dont have this check point.

16

point mutations

changes in one or a few nucleotide base pairs

17

chromosome translocation

a piece on one chromosome is transferred to another

18

gene amplification

duplication of a small piece of chromosome over and over.
can result in increased expression of an oncogene.

19

If mutations occurs in ______cells it is not passed to progeny

somatic

20

if the mutation occurs in _____cells it can be passed to future generations

germline.

21

oncogene

mutant genes in their non-mutant state direct (activate or inhibit) protein synthesis and cellular growth.

22

prto-oncogene

a normal nonmutant gene that codes for cellular growth (so an oncogene before mutation)
ex:ras, Rb, p53

23

what happens when ras is mutated?

it become too active so it doesn't inhibit p53 abd Rb from stopping every cell.

24

what happens when p53 or Rb are mutated?

they stop no bueno cells so then cells so then bad cells will just grow.
p53 normally stops cell groth with hypocxia

25

carcinoma

a freckle that goes bad

26

melanoma

a mole that goes bad

27

occupational hazard

asbestos
dyes, rubber, paint, explosives, rubber cement, heavy metals, air, pollution. etc.
radon

28

what is the greatest risk factor for cancer?

aging

29

cancer risk correlates with

BMI

30

Adipose tissue is an active ____organ

endocrine

31

VEGF

vaso endothelial growth factor
induced angiogenesis

32

TNFalpha

cytokine
enables cancer bc of inflammation

33

severl tumors exhibit _____insulin receptor presence

increased
ex: breat prostate, colon, liver

34

warburg effect

most cancer cells have a strong preference to use non-oxidative glycolysis. aka cancer cells can only use glucose

35

Diet low in____may reduce cancer risk

carbs

36

angiogenesis

growth of new vessels.
advanced cancers can secrete angiogenic factors.
any tumor larger than 1mm needs its own blood supply

37

metastasis

spread of cancer from a primary site of origin to a distant site
can do it by direct invasion of contiguous organs (local spread) or can go to distant organs through the lymphatic system and blood, this type requires angiogenesis

38

True or false:all cancer cells can metastasize

false

39

staging

involves the size of the tumor, degree to which it has invaded, and the extent to which it had spread.

40

stage 1

cancer is confined to its organ of origin

41

stage 2

locally invasive, still in same organ

42

stage 3

regional structures, it's still in the same cavity or general area

43

stage 4

distant sites

44

what is the order of the three steps in the theory of metastic invasion?

attachment-->degradation of the matrix-->locomotion

45

Syndrome of cachexia

severe form os malnutrition
present in 80% of cancer patients at death

46

which is better for cancer patients? a ketogenic diet or insulin administration?

a ketogenic diet. it can reverse the cachetic process and might reduce tumor weight

47

causes of cancer death

infection
hemorrhage
blood clots
anemia
weakness due to weight loss
loss of function of critical organ systems