Flashcards in Cancer Deck (47):
well defined capsule
low mitotic index
does not metastasize
high mitotic index
can spread distantly (metastasis)
malignant epithelial tumors
cancer tumor from ductal or glandular strustures
benign tumor in ductal or glandular structures
malignant connective tissue (non-epithelial) tumors
chondrosarcoma-tumor in cartilage
cancers of lymphatic tissue
cancers of blood-forming cell
starting to lose differentiation
in situ neoplasm
poorly differentiated but not breaking into other tissues
starts to spread bc it broke through the bottom layer and gets into the lymphatic system. metastisizes
absence of differentiation
resemble their cell of origin (well differntiated) but they do not have the normal function.
cell cycle check point
there are two check point in the cell cycle (at the end of each G phase). if the cell is not looking good then it goes through apoptosis. cancer cells dont have this check point.
changes in one or a few nucleotide base pairs
a piece on one chromosome is transferred to another
duplication of a small piece of chromosome over and over.
can result in increased expression of an oncogene.
If mutations occurs in ______cells it is not passed to progeny
if the mutation occurs in _____cells it can be passed to future generations
mutant genes in their non-mutant state direct (activate or inhibit) protein synthesis and cellular growth.
a normal nonmutant gene that codes for cellular growth (so an oncogene before mutation)
ex:ras, Rb, p53
what happens when ras is mutated?
it become too active so it doesn't inhibit p53 abd Rb from stopping every cell.
what happens when p53 or Rb are mutated?
they stop no bueno cells so then cells so then bad cells will just grow.
p53 normally stops cell groth with hypocxia
a freckle that goes bad
a mole that goes bad
dyes, rubber, paint, explosives, rubber cement, heavy metals, air, pollution. etc.
what is the greatest risk factor for cancer?
cancer risk correlates with
Adipose tissue is an active ____organ
vaso endothelial growth factor
enables cancer bc of inflammation
severl tumors exhibit _____insulin receptor presence
ex: breat prostate, colon, liver
most cancer cells have a strong preference to use non-oxidative glycolysis. aka cancer cells can only use glucose
Diet low in____may reduce cancer risk
growth of new vessels.
advanced cancers can secrete angiogenic factors.
any tumor larger than 1mm needs its own blood supply
spread of cancer from a primary site of origin to a distant site
can do it by direct invasion of contiguous organs (local spread) or can go to distant organs through the lymphatic system and blood, this type requires angiogenesis
True or false:all cancer cells can metastasize
involves the size of the tumor, degree to which it has invaded, and the extent to which it had spread.
cancer is confined to its organ of origin
locally invasive, still in same organ
regional structures, it's still in the same cavity or general area
what is the order of the three steps in the theory of metastic invasion?
attachment-->degradation of the matrix-->locomotion
Syndrome of cachexia
severe form os malnutrition
present in 80% of cancer patients at death
which is better for cancer patients? a ketogenic diet or insulin administration?
a ketogenic diet. it can reverse the cachetic process and might reduce tumor weight