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Flashcards in Neurological Disorders Deck (105)
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1

Blunt Brain trauma

Closed
Head strikes hard surface or a rapid moving object strikes the head.
Dura mater is intact and brain tissue is not exposed.

2

What kind of brain injury can Blunt trauma cause?

Focal (local) or diffuse (general) brain injuries.

3

Open Brain Trauma

Penetrating
injury breaks the dura and exposes the cranial contents to the environment.

4

what kind of injury does open trauma cause?

Causes primarily focal injuries.

5

What are types of injury caused by Bunt Trauma?

Coup injury and Contrecoup

6

Coup Injury

Injury directly at the point of impact

7

Contrecoup

Injury on the polar opposite of the site of impact

8

Focal Brain Injury

Observable brain lesion
force of impact typically produces contusion
-extradural hematoma
-subdural hematoma
-Intracerebral hematomas

9

What are different types of concussions?

Mild and classical

10

Mild concussion

temporary axonal disturbance causing attention and memory deficits but NO loss of consciousness

11

Type I mild concussion

confusion
disorientation
memory amnesia

12

Type II Mild concussion

momentary confusion
retrograde amnesia of prior minutes

13

Type III Mild concussion

confusion with retrograde (greater than a few minutes) and anterograde amnesia

14

Classic concussion

Grade IV
loss of consciousness (for more than 6 hrs)
physiological and neurologic dysfunction without substantial anatomic disruption
anterograde and retrograde amnesia

15

What causes the loss of consciousness in grade IV concussions?

Disconnection of cerebral systems from the brain stem and reticular activating system

16

Your friend takes a huge hit as he is running for the goal line playing “flag football”. He is slow to get up and unsteady on his feet. He goes over to the sidelines and can’t remember what day of the week it is. The next day, he still can’t remember what happened for several hours before or after the game. How severe was the concussion he just experienced?

Grade III

17

cerebrovascular Disorders

Any Abnormalities of he brain caused by a pathologic process in the blood vessels

18

Cerebral Infarction

loss of blood flow to brain area

19

Cerebral Hemorrhage

Bleeding within the brain

20

Transient Ischemic Attacks (TIA)

confusion
difficulty communicating
usually no long term dysfunction (<24hrs)
a warning sign of something more severe.

21

What are different types of cerebrovascular accidents?

Hemorrhagic Stroke
Thrombotic Stroke
Embolic Stroke

22

Hemorrhagic Stroke

intracranial/cerebral hemorrhage
from an aneurysm
most common cause is hypertension

23

Thrombotic Stroke

arterial occlusions caused by thrombi formed in arteries supplying the brain or in the intracranial vessels

24

embolic stroke

an thrombus formed outside the brain

25

What are examples of Intracranial Aneurysms?

Saccular (berry) Aneurysms
Fusiform (giant) aneurysms

26

Saccular (berry) aneurysms

Exacerbated (caused) by hypertension
increases risk of hemorrhage
the walls move out on one side of the vein, kinda like it's gonna go through exocytosis

27

Fusiform (giant) Aneurysms

walls move out on both sides like when you blow up ling skinny balloons

28

Cavernous Angiomas

group of dilated blood vessels with no other brain tissue
these are not that dangerous because they rarely hemorrhage.

29

capillary telangiectasis

small abnormally dilated capillaries. These are not that dangerous because they rarely hemorrhage.

30

venous angioma

abnormal cluster of veins draining a region of brain tissue. These are not that dangerous because they rarely hemorrhage.