Flashcards in Neurological Disorders Deck (105)
Blunt Brain trauma
Head strikes hard surface or a rapid moving object strikes the head.
Dura mater is intact and brain tissue is not exposed.
What kind of brain injury can Blunt trauma cause?
Focal (local) or diffuse (general) brain injuries.
Open Brain Trauma
injury breaks the dura and exposes the cranial contents to the environment.
what kind of injury does open trauma cause?
Causes primarily focal injuries.
What are types of injury caused by Bunt Trauma?
Coup injury and Contrecoup
Injury directly at the point of impact
Injury on the polar opposite of the site of impact
Focal Brain Injury
Observable brain lesion
force of impact typically produces contusion
What are different types of concussions?
Mild and classical
temporary axonal disturbance causing attention and memory deficits but NO loss of consciousness
Type I mild concussion
Type II Mild concussion
retrograde amnesia of prior minutes
Type III Mild concussion
confusion with retrograde (greater than a few minutes) and anterograde amnesia
loss of consciousness (for more than 6 hrs)
physiological and neurologic dysfunction without substantial anatomic disruption
anterograde and retrograde amnesia
What causes the loss of consciousness in grade IV concussions?
Disconnection of cerebral systems from the brain stem and reticular activating system
Your friend takes a huge hit as he is running for the goal line playing “flag football”. He is slow to get up and unsteady on his feet. He goes over to the sidelines and can’t remember what day of the week it is. The next day, he still can’t remember what happened for several hours before or after the game. How severe was the concussion he just experienced?
Any Abnormalities of he brain caused by a pathologic process in the blood vessels
loss of blood flow to brain area
Bleeding within the brain
Transient Ischemic Attacks (TIA)
usually no long term dysfunction (<24hrs)
a warning sign of something more severe.
What are different types of cerebrovascular accidents?
from an aneurysm
most common cause is hypertension
arterial occlusions caused by thrombi formed in arteries supplying the brain or in the intracranial vessels
an thrombus formed outside the brain
What are examples of Intracranial Aneurysms?
Saccular (berry) Aneurysms
Fusiform (giant) aneurysms
Saccular (berry) aneurysms
Exacerbated (caused) by hypertension
increases risk of hemorrhage
the walls move out on one side of the vein, kinda like it's gonna go through exocytosis
Fusiform (giant) Aneurysms
walls move out on both sides like when you blow up ling skinny balloons
group of dilated blood vessels with no other brain tissue
these are not that dangerous because they rarely hemorrhage.
small abnormally dilated capillaries. These are not that dangerous because they rarely hemorrhage.