Flashcards in Integration of Metabolism Deck (165)
What do you get when you put storage fuels, O2, and ATP together?
you get CO2, H20, and urea
To maintain homeostasis what do you need?
continuous input of energy
What does the liver do?
process fats, carbs, proteins from diet, syntehsizes and distributes lipids, ketone bodies, and glucose for other tissues, converts nitrogen to urea
WHen the brain is well fed, how much glucose does it consume?
When it is fasting?
What is considered the checking account of the body?
What is considered the savings account of the body?
how is this coordinated?
nervous and hormonal signals
When you fast what happens to your adipose tissue?
you increase your FFAs
(adipose tissue has 100X more energy than glycogen)
When are insulin levels the highest and what does it do?
after a high carb meal
stores glucose via liver adipose and muscle
Besides glucose what else can potentiate insulin?
What does the liver use to transport glucose and is this a high or low affinity glucose transporters?
GLUT 2 (Km=15 mM)
What does glucokinase do?
increase glucose phosphorylation
What does PFKI and pyruvate kinase stimulate?
What does PEPCK, F1,6 BPtase, and G6Ptase do?
What does glycogen synthase do?
increase glycogen synthesis
What does glycogen phosphorylase do?
What does acetyl CoA carboxylase do?
it increases fatty acid synthesis
What does ATP-citrate lyase do?
Converts citrate to OAA and acetyl coa for fatty acid synthesis
What does the malic enzyme do?
Produces NADPH which is necessary for fatty acid biosynthesis (coverts malate to pyruvate)
What does G6P dehydrogenase do?
The regulated step of the pentose phosphate pathway and the step that provides NADPH to allow for proper RBC development
What are insulins affects on the liver?
increases glucose phosphorylation
increase glycogen synthesis
increase FA synthesis
increase pentose phosphate pathway
(i.e gets rid of glucose through storage or through breakdown and puts the breakdown products into other storage areas like FAs)
What are insulin's affects on adipose tissue?
increase glucose uptake
increase pyruvate oxidation(to become acetyl CoA)
increase TAG (FFA) uptake
Increase TAG synthesis
What is the main idea of insulins affects on adipose tissue?
to decrease the amount of glucose via glycolysis and place the breakdown products (pyruvate) into storage (fat)
How does insulin decrease lipolysis?
by inhibited HSL (the rate limiting step of lipolysis)
How does insulin increase TAG (FFA) uptake?
Increases LPL which will turn release TAGS into capillaries
How will insulin increase pyruvate oxidation?
by increasing pyruvate dehydogenase
How will insulin increase activity of PPP?
via increase in G6PD
How will insulin increase glucose uptake?
via Glut4 receptors (low affinity receptors)
How does insulin affect the skeletal muscle and how?
increases glucose uptake via GLUT4
Increase glucose breakdown via PFK1
increases protein synthesis by nonselective translation
increase glycogen synthesis via glycogen synthase
What breaks down glycogen?
What 2 things are insulin INDEPENDENT?
brain and RBCs cuz they need glucose NO MATTER WHAT