What are supports?
- resources and strategies that aim to promote the development, education, interests, and personal well-being of a person and that enhance individual functioning.
What are the 3 adaptive behaviours categories?
Why are supports necessary?
- support needs are psychological constructs referring to the pattern and intensity of supports necessary for a person to participate in activities linked with normative human functioning.
What are the aspects of the conceptual component of behaviour?
- language, reading, writing, money, time, number concepts
What are devices?
- services are one type of support provided by agencies and professionals
How can we obtain individual functioning?
- having an interaction of supports
- appropriate supports will improve functioning
What are some causes of intellectual disability?
prenatal, perinatal, postnatal
How can intellectual disabilities occur?
- causes can be congenital or adventitious (occurs spontaneously and not caused by heredity)
What are some causes of intellectual disabilities (prenatal)?
- chromosomal disorders
- brain formation disorders (i.e. - Neural Tube fails to form properly)
- errors of metabolism (i.e. protein synthesis)
- environmental (i.e. toxins, drug/alcohol use)
What are some causes of intellectual disabilities (perinatal)?
- abnormal labour and delivery
- head trauma
- intracranial haemorrhage
- nutritional imbalance
What does perinatal means?
- around childbirth especially 5 months before and one month after
What are some causes of intellectual disabilities (postnatal)?
- head injuries
- seizure disorders
- environmental deprivation (i.e. disease-producing conditions, inadequate medical care, isolation, and environmental health hazards)
How many people are effected by chromosomal abnormalities?
- chromosomal abnormalities affect about 7 in every 1000 births
How do chromosomal abnormalities occur?
- usually result from chance errors in cell division
- can occur in either autosomes or sex chromosomes
How many chromosome should we have?
- 22 are autosomes + 1 sex chromosome
What are some characteristics of Trisomy 21 (Down syndrome)?
- short stature
- short limbs with short, broad hands and feet
- almond-shaped, slanted eyes
- flattened back of skull, short neck
- small oral cavity
- hypotonic muscle tone during childhood (strabismus,myopic)
- joint looseness
- flattened facial (hypotonicity & lax features ligaments)
What are some characteristics of Trisomy 21? (continued)
- hypotonia and skeletal concerns
- motor development delays
- balance deficits
- left-handedness and asymmetrical strength
- visual and hearing concerns
- heart and lung problems
- fitness and obesity
- health and temperament
Down syndrome statistics regarding maternal age.
risk is about 1 in 800, but varies with maternal age - age 25 = 1/1000 - over 35 = 1/400 - over 45 = 1/35-40
How can Down syndrome be detected?
- through amniocentesis
What are some conditions that intellectual disabilities with associated conditions?
- cerebral palsy
- dual diagnosis (mental health)
- pain insensitivity and indifference
What are some considerations for physical activity regarding communication and self-direction?
- communication and self-direction
- augmentative/alternative communication (low-tech, high-tech)
- time delay to respond (10 seconds without prompting)
What are some considerations for physical activity regarding cognitive ability?
- memory or retention
- feed back
- task analysis, repetition, generalization
How can we aid with memory and retention for those lacking cognitive ability?
- add rehearsal strategies and provide multiple trials
- modeling, verbal rehearsal, self talk and imagery
What are some considerations for physical activity regarding motor performance?
- motor development and delays
- influence of physical constraints (height; weight)
- physical fitness and active lifestyle
What are some considerations for physical activity regarding movement difficulties? (5 sources)
- deficiencies in knowledge base or lack of access to it
- failure to use spontaneous strategies (need cues)
- inadequate metacognitive knowledge and understanding (need to ‘think’ throughout the day)
- executive control and motor planning weaknesses (start/stop actions, adapt to change)
- low motivation and inadequate practice
What is metacognition?
- awareness and understanding of one’s own thought processes.
What is the knowledge-based model?
- guide instruction implies careful teaching of facts and processes with emphasis on problem solving so learners are actively involved
- ecological task analysis is one approach to teaching problem solving
What is the dilemma over the definition of intellectual disability?
- depending on the literature, its classified as having an IQ under 70 or 75
- also considers adaptive functioning
What is the definition of an intellectual disability?
- characterized by significant limitations both in intellectual functioning and in adaptive behaviour expressed in conceptual, social, and practical adaptive skills
- originates before the age of 18
What needs to be considered regarding limitations in functioning?
- analysis of the environments typical of the individual’s age, peers, and culture
What are some key things to consider when assessing an individual?
- cultural and linguistic diversity as well as differences in communication, sensory, motor, and behavioral factors.
Do limitations coexist with strengths?
What is adaptive behaviour?
- a collection of conceptual, social and practical skills that have been learned by people in order to function in their everyday lives
What are some aspects of the conceptual category of adaptive behaviour?
- language, reading and writing, money, time, number concepts
What are some aspects of the social category of adaptive behaviour?
- interpersonal skills, social responsibility, self-esteem, gullibility, following rules, obeying laws, and avoiding victimization
What are some aspects of the practical category of adaptive behaviour?
- ADL (activities of daily living/personal care), occupational skills, use of money, safety, health care, travel/transportation, schedules/routines, use of the telephone
What is the atlantoaxial?
- atlantoaxial is joint between first 2 cervical vertebrae
- affects 17% of people with down syndrome