How are the deaf considered a minority?
- cultural and linguistic minority (sign language)
What is a hearing impairment?
- indicates the presence of a hearing disability that can range in severity from mild to profound
What does it mean to be deaf?
- cannot process auditory information at all (non-functional)
What does it mean to be hard of hearing?
- residual hearing enables processing of auditory information with or without a hearing aid (functional hearing)
What are the three attributes of sound?
- Intensity (dB)
- Frequency (Hz)
- Resonance (timbre)
What does intensity of sound entail in everyday life?
- point of first audible sound is 0 dB.
- normal speech 10 feet away is 45 to 65 dB (train passing at 10 feet away is about 90 – 120 dB)
- anything over 100dB can be harmful and
What does frequency (pitch) of sound entail in everyday life?
- frequency of sound waves and is measured in hertz (Hz)
- some hearing impairments involve only certain frequencies
- older individuals have issues with high frequencies or sounds such as (s, z, v, t)
What does difficulties with resonance sound qualities entail in everyday life?
- enable us to distinguish between sounds (music) and voices
- individuals with deficits in this area are known as tone deaf
Putting your fingers in your ear canal creates what dB conductive hearing loss?
- 25 dB
How does our hearing work?
- sound waves are vibrations
- these vibrations pass from the outer ear to the middle ear
- waves are then converted into neural information that passes along auditory nerve to our brain where we make sense of it
What does a slight hearing loss entail?
- loss of 25-40 dB
- difficulty with whispered speech
What does a mild hearing loss entail?
- 41-54 dB
- difficulty with normal speech at a distance of three to five feet
What does a moderate hearing loss entail?
- 55-69 dB
- understanding loud or shouted speech at close range; group discussions
What does a severe hearing loss entail?
- 70-89 dB
- difficulty understanding speech at close range, even when amplified
What does a profound hearing loss entail?
- 90+ dB
- difficulty hearing most sounds, including telephone rings and musical instruments
What is conductive hearing loss?
- affects outer and/or middle ear
What are some disorders of the middle ear?
- ossicles, eustachian tube, otitis media (inflammation of
the middle ear - most prevalent conductive disorder)
- 75-95% children at risk due to repeated ear infections
What is sensorineural hearing loss?
- affects inner ear or auditory nerve
- caused by damage to the cells and nerve fibres that transmit and receive sound
- not only reduces sound but causes distortions in residual hearing as well
- less likely to be improved by medical treatment
- sensorineural hearing loss and balance deficits sometimes occur together
What is mixed loss and tinnitus?
- combined conductive and sensorineural hearing loss
- tinnitus is sound sensation in one or both ears
- Whistling, hissing, buzzing, throbbing, whining
What are some reasons for hearing loss?
- autosomal recessive genes, bacterial and viral infections, idiopathic, maternal illness
- noise! (recreation, occupation)
How many people experience hearing loss or impairment?
- 3.1 million people have some degree of hearing loss
1: 25…2:25 Canadians affected
What are some consideration for physical activity regarding people with hearing impairment?
- lower motor performance
- lack of opportunity to practice
- balance problems caused by vestibular damage
- communication barriers may limit experiences
What are some ways to improve communication between instructors and hard of hearing participants?
- speech reading/lip reading, amplification of residual hearing
- sign language, finger spelling
- oral, signed, and written
- ASL – most accepted method of communication