What are some ways the media portrays PWD?
- “poster child” (usually cute and little)
- “super crip” (overcome limitations through extraordinary features)
- “cripsploitation” (taking advantage)
What are the disadvantages of the media portraying images if PWD?
- does not allow for interaction or understanding
- automatically underestimates PWD
What is ableism?
- discrimination or prejudice against individuals with disabilities
How are PWD portrayed in entertainment?
- often portrayed as a comedian (laugh at, laugh with)
- disability is almost always visual
10 common stereotypes of PWD
- to be pitied
- sinister or evil
- exotic, curious
- triumph over tragedy
- laughable entertainment
- resentfully and hostile
- burden to others
- cannot participate in everyday life
What does it mean to categorize?
- we categorize to identify one’s philosophy
- understand terms, how we can approach service delivery
- Deficit or medical model
- Social minority or disability rights model
- ecological model
What are some aspects of the deficit/medical model?
- federal law dictated that students had to meet certain diagnostic criteria to specific disability categories in order to receive special education services
- categorizes disability: intellectual and learning
What are some aspects of the social minority / disability rights model?
- more recent and still evolving
- does not group disabilities into categories
- focuses on the individual
What are some aspects of the ecological model / individual difference model?
- emphasizes that difference is the product of interactions between persons and their social and physical environments
- persons with and without disabilities
How does the deficit/medical/categorial model view disability?
How does the social minority/disability rights model view disability?
- equated with being different, not less than
- environment should be set up for their needs
How does the ecological model view disability?
- equated with being different and with person-environment interactions that cause differences
- environment can impede or enable functioning
What are the identity perceptions of the deficit/medical/categorial model?
- individuals have common anomalies and deficits that are viewed as personal tragedy
What connotation is associated with the deficit/medical/categorial model?
- views PWD as problems
What is the service delivery and its purpose of the deficit/medical/categorial model?
- give advice, prescription or remediation
- is a treatment based on deficits, problems, or characteristics
What are some symbols associated with the deficit/medical/categorial model?
- handicap symbol
What are the identity perceptions of the minority/disability rights model?
- individuals have one commonality (social stigma created around differences)
What connotation is associated with the minority/disability rights model?
- positive or neutral
What are some symbols associated with the minority/disability rights model?
What is the service delivery and its purpose of the minority/disability rights model?
- based on individual assessment and personal strengths and weaknesses
- to empower the individual to assume active role in self-actualization
What are the identity perceptions of the ecological model?
- persons have some common barriers and enablers (barriers must be eliminated)
What connotation is associated with the ecological model?
- environmental variables emphasized
What is the service delivery and its purpose of the ecological model?
- assessment encompasses individuals and their ecosystems
- goals focus on barriers and enablers
- empower individual to assume active role in self-actualization
What are some symbols associated with the ecological model?
Why is empowerment so important?
- it is an interactional process where everyone can acquire the vision, motivation, resources, and power to strive towards being the best they can be (self-actualization)
What is the process of devaluation?
- perpetuates segregation - can be positive
- serves a profession purpose (supports and services)
What are the steps in the cycle of devaluation? (9)
- ) person has impairment (viewed negatively by society - support required)
- ) to get support, person is given a label
- ) person is segregated from services
- ) isolated from community
- ) person interacts with others who are also labeled - which accentuates differences
- ) feelings of powerlessness
- ) lowered expectations
- ) few opportunities
- ) further impairment and social handicap
What is impairment?
- any loss or abnormality of psychological, physiological, or anatomical structure or function
- may result from a disease, accident, genetic or other environmental agents
What is disability?
- any restriction or lack of ability to perform an activity in the manner or range considered “normal”
What does handicap mean?
- a disadvantage for a given individual that limits or prevents the fulfillment of a role that is normal for that individual
What is ICF?
- international classification of functioning, disability, and health
- classification of health and health related domains
What is function and structure?
- physiological functions of the body systems
- anatomical parts of the body such as organs, limbs, and their components
- deviation in body structure
- can be temporary, permanent, progressive, regressive, or static
What is function and structure formerly known as?
- disease and impairment
What is the definition of activity?
- execution of a task or action
What is the definition of participation?
- involvement in a life situation
What does activity limitations mean?
- difficulties an individual may have in executing activities
What are participation restrictions?
- problems an individual may experience in involvement in life situations
What was environmental factors formerly recognized as?
How is an individual viewed from a societal/environmental perspective?
- focuses on the individuals immediate environment (home, workplace, school)
What are sources that are available from a societal/environmental stand point?
- focuses and services and approaches/systems in the community or society (transportation, policies, attitudes, government agencies)
- exterior from individual
Is each disability the same?
- FUCK NO
- Each disability comes in differing degrees or severity
How can we change the perception of disability?
- change the connotation - think of them in a new light
- acknowledge that everyone can experience a decline in health and thereby experience some degree of disability
- “mainstream” the experience of disability
- recognize it as a universal human experience
- consider environmental factors and how the environment affects the persons functioning
How can we make disabilities “no long exist”?
- activities must be changes and adapted so that limitations are minimized or eliminated
How is ICF used?
- health and disability reporting (measure health status of countries)
- social policy (anti-discrimination law)
- clinical and epidemiological use (outcome measurement, treatment planning)
- research (impact, intention, application)
A disability can either be….
how did they get it
- congenital (present from birth)
- acquired (developed)
How has ICF changed the perception of disability?
- more positive and realistic point of view
- look at “how can we change the perception of disability”
What is the strengths perspective?
- an alternative to the dominant medical model perspective, focusing on an individuals strengths
How does the strengths perspective demand a new way of looking at individuals and communities?
- all must be seen ins the light of their capacities, talents, competencies, possibilities, visions, values, and hopes
- composing a roster of resources within and around the individual
What does the strengths perspective focus on?
- it puts a line of focus on “what people want their lives to be like, and what resources and strength they have or need to get there”
What are strengths?
- capacities, assets, and resources
- personal qualities, traits, and virtues
How do you discover strengths?
- look into interests, talents and competences
- go beyond standard assessment protocol……listen!
What are some questions to consider for assessment?
- survival, support, exceptions, possibility, esteem, perspective, meaning
What is a key idea of the strengths perspective?
- tapping into visions and dreams
- belief in the possible
What are important aspects of the strengths perspective?
- opportunities for choice, commitment, and action
- service providers (social workers, therapists, program, coordinators, companions)
What are some resources?
- friends, family, coaches, teachers, pets, computers, cellphones, technology
What are the principles of the strength perspective?
- recognizing that trauma, abuse, illness, and struggle may be a source of challenge and opportunity (positive growth resilience)
- take aspirations seriously
- we best serve client collaborating with them
- SP is about the revolutionary possibility of hope
How did adapted physical activity evolve?
- shifting through paradigms
What is a paradigm?
- the generally accepted perspective of a particular topic or discipline at a given time - a set of assumptions, concepts, values, and practices that constitute a way of viewing reality
- an accepted way of thinking that results in action
What are the beliefs associated with the facility based paradigm?
- believed that people with disabilities were a menace, should be isolated from the general public
- had very different needs from the typical population
When was the facility based paradigm in full effect?
- prominent in the early 1900, and late 19th century
What was the effect and results of the facility based way of thinking?
- residential programs
- special schools
- corrective therapy as only opportunity for physical activity
- education based on labels rather than needs
- NO treatment
Why did the service based approach come into effect?
- public outcry due to lack of support for veterans returning from WWII
- research revealed the capabilities and potential growth of those thought to be “educable”
When did the service based approach come into effect?
- 1950s and 60s
What was the thought that sprung the service based approach into effect?
- a belief that appropriate programming and skill development would lead to integration
What were the actions and results of the service based paradigm?
- special classes, resource rooms, sheltered workshops
- physical activity opportunities were about assistance, not correcting and ignoring
- a great move toward DEINSTITUTIONALIZATION
What is an institute?
- a facility or establishment in which people live and receive care typically in a confined setting and often without individual consent
When did the supports based paradigm come into effect?
- 1970s - 21st century
What is the importance of individualized physical activity plans?
- focuses on lifetime skill development
What are individualized physical activity plans? (definition)
- the science of analyzing movement, identifying problems in the psychomotor domain and developing instructional strategies for remediating problems and preserving ego strength
What does the supports based approach require implementation of?
- teaching assistants/aides, peer supports, use of computers and individualized physical activity plans
What is a difficulty of the supports based paradigm that we still face?
- we are very quick to fundraise for resources, but its tough to get funding needed to get human supports
The supports based approach had good intentions however…
- there was no move away from isolated residential and vocational programs
- programming seemed to be inefficient
- made use of natural, human, or technical supports to assist with inclusion
What is inclusion?
- a philosophy that everyone belongs, contributes and develops
What is empowerment?
- self-determination is personal power
- living as independently as possible, making decisions, assuming responsibility, taking risks
How can becoming empowered require assistance?
- empowerment is an individual process by which one secures increased control over ones life
- abilities of an individual become apparent when in conjunction with supportive change within the community
Why are physical activity opportunities so important?
- they offer choice and control
What is the resistance theory?
- views people experiences disability as oppressed AND the acknowledgement of these social forces that oppose people with disability
How does the resistance theory recognize power?
- recognizes the presence of power is manifested through policy, support practices, inequities and lack of accessibility
How does the concept of resistance begin?
- with a simple recognition of oppression, a desire to change, and is fuelled by collective banding that raises consciousness, leading to empowerment, action, and societal change
What is the personal coherence theory?
- rooted in strengths perspective
- suggested that people experiencing disabilities are experts in their own lives and that professional support should be focused on the persons “talents, resourcefulness, possibility, meaning, history, and strengths
What is contemporary APA?
- philosophy and attitude
- focus on differences
- characterized by adaptations to accommodate
- offers opportunity for independence and self-determination
What does adapted really mean?
- suggests that there are changes, modifications, or adjustments of goals, objectives, and/or instructions
- all physical activity is adapted
Why are adaptations used?
- to enhance learning practice and enjoyment of independent physical activity, choice, and opportunity leading to empowerment
How is quality education adapted?
- choice drives
- encourages people of all abilities to engage and succeed
- trying to introduce skills to give people the indolence to use them in the future
Who came up with the theory of adaption?
Ernst Kiphard (1983)
What is the theory of adaption?
- stressed individual and environmental interactions
- adaption is a reciprocal process
- must be holistic, age appropriate, person centred and person-directed (look at who the individual is)
Why is adaption important?
- an umbrella process that encompasses related services and such supports as accommodations, modifications, supplementary resources for aids
What is the purpose of adaption?
- to promote goals for students who are experiencing environmental barriers and physical limitations
What is adaption?
- it is the art and science of assessing prioritizing, and managing variables to facilitate the changes needed to achieve desired physical activity and movement outcomes
- creative and systematic
What is adapted physical activity?
- an attitude and philosophy (believing component)
- a service delivery system (doing component)
- a cross disciplinary body of knowledge
- focus on individual differences
- process of advocacy
- promotion of independence and self-determination
What are adapted physical activity programs?
- have the same objective as regular physical activity programs but adjustments are made in regular offerings to meet needs and abilities of all participants
- may be integrated or segregated
5 factors of APE/APA model
- asses movement needed
- select functional goal
- specific objectives
- assess, prioritizes, and manages variables
- evaluate program and plan change
How does one select a functional goal?
- age of student and focus on learning/developing skills, generalization and maintenance of movement skills and patterns that ill enrich the quality of family, school, and neighbourhood activities
What is functional competence?
- being able to use movement skills and patterns in a meaningful, age appropriate drills and games to be able to perform under varied conditions
How do we assess, prioritize and manage variables?
- with the selection of functional goals, variables that must be changed are identified
Why is assessing, prioritizing and managing variables important?
- leads to awareness of the barriers to overcome, personal limitations that may or may not be modifiable and enablers to facilitate social change
How do we evaluate the lesson or program and plan for change?
- engage in continuous assessment
Why is it important to engage in continuous assessment?
- underlying principle is to engage the person in critical thinking and make them feel responsible for making environmental conditions the best they can be
What are some important things to keep in mind when evaluating a lesson or program?
- have barriers been overcome, personal limitations accepted or changed, enablers maximized to enhance goal achievement
What things are important to keep in mind of the person you are working with?
- social skills
- strengths and weaknesses
- cognitive ability
What are some things to keep in mind about yourself?
- strengths and weaknesses
- body language and gestures
- your knowledge of disability
What are task variables?
What re some interacting variables for APA?
- task variables
- physical environment
- objects and equipment
- psychosocial elements
- the learner
- instructions and informations
- temporal environment
What are important aspects of a physical environment for APA?
What are some important aspects of objects and equipment to consider for APA?
What are some important psychosocial components to consider for APA?
- attitudes, feelings about self and others
- perceptions of the instructor, one or several
- nature and number of ppl
- expectations, reactions, and actions
- are partners and/or peer tutors used?
What are some aspects of the learner to keep in mind for APA?
- their interests
- previous experience
- learning style
- age, gender, race
- strengths and weaknesses
- is this activity meaningful?
What are some important aspects of interactions and informations to consider for APA?
- types of feedback and when you give it
- methods of presentation/demo
- level of assisting during practice
- use of time
- distance between teacher and learner
- model type (teacher?student?)
- how do you present new material
What are some aspects of the temporal environment to keep in mind when practicing APA?
- planned time vs. unplanned time
- time on a given task, number of trials, within time period
- duration of the time for each set of instructions
- time intervals between cues, performance correction, and reinforcement
What are some adaptions to consider when trying to accommodate specific limitations?
- strength and power
- coordination and accuracy
What are some adaption to accommodate limitations with strength and power?
- lower targets
- reduce distance, playing field
- reduce weight, size of striking implement, balls, projectiles
- allow student to sit or lie down while playing
What are some adaption to accommodate limitations with endurance?
- use deflated or suspended balls
- decrease activity time, increase rest time
- reduce speed of game
What are some adaption to accommodate limitations with balance?
- lower centre of gravity
- keep as much of the body in contact w surface as possible
- widen bases of support
- extend arms
- use carpet surface rather than slick surfaces
- provide structure to assist with stability
What are some adaption to accommodate limitations with coordination and accuracy?
- use light, soft, small, large balls for catching or striking
- decrease distance ball is thrown and reduce speed
- use stationary balls for striking and kicking
- increase surface of striking implement
- increase size of target
What are some modifications that can be made to the curriculum?
- purpose or goal of the game
- number of players
- field of play
- objects used
- level of organization
Good service delivery is adapting. What are some aspects of service delivery that can be adapted?
- mainstream, non-mainstream, school, non-school
- adapting goals, content, pedagogy (education)
What are the benefits of adapting for the participant?
- minimize failure and maintain confidence
What is inclusion?
- to contain as part of a whole (everyone can take part)
What is integration?
- incorporating or amalgamating activity/facility, needs something added so everyone can take part (a piece has to be added)
What is the purpose of inclusion and integration?
- a process, not just a product
- it is about ensuring choices, having support, having connections, and being valued
- PWD become full, active, learning members of the community
How does inclusion and integration suggest that diversity is valuable?
- focuses on capabilities
- recognizes there is an array of contributions
- all people are worthy
- understand that doing one’s best and helping other to do the same is what is most important
What are the values of inclusion?
What are the components of inclusion?
- physical (location)
- instructional (involvement in learning activities)
- **social (positive, personal and meaningful interactions with peers)
What are the benefits of inclusion?
- everyone is included!
- people no not feel like they are any different
- feelings of importance
What are some risks of inclusion?
- may make some feel embarrassed therefore not feel like part of the group
- safety in physical activity environment
- feel vulnerable
- creates a culture of gentleness, culture of safety
What are some approaches to facilitate inclusion?
- enhancing your attitude
- improving others attitudes
- using and being aware of sensitive terminology
- encouraging integration
How do our attitude develop towards PWD?
- attitude are based on our earlier experiences
- based on knowledge of a situation or event and thus our beliefs about that situation or event, past experiences, and outcomes
What are some ways to enhance your attitude towards disability?
- attend presentations and discussions
- develop awareness of personal attitudes
- direct contact
How can we improve others attitudes?
- bad attitude is often based on fear and ignorance
- focus on similarities
- view people as part of humanity
- adopt a person-centred approach
What are some actions that can aid in improving others attitudes?
- structure interactions
- encourage personal contact
- promote joint participation
- facilitate equal status
- foster cooperative independence
- develop effective communication
How can we use sensitive terminology and be aware of offensive terminology?
- sensitive terminology communicates a positive attitude towards PWD and has a ‘people first’ philosophy?
What are some strategies to create awareness of proper terminology?
- focus on similarities
- consider the person first
- emphasize each individuals abilities
- communicate dignity and respect for each individual
- use consisted terminology to enhance understanding
How can we encourage integration?
- know the benefits of integration/inclusion
- be aware of barriers
- facilitate self-determination
- advocate for services
What is the inclusion process?
- different model (gives us practical ideas and tools that you can experiment with to make adaptions)
What are some internal barrier to inclusion?
- lack of physical ability
- lack of time
- lack of confidence or motivation
- lack of awareness of the benefits of physical activity
- lack of awareness of opportunities
- the perceived attitudes of other
What are some external barriers to inclusion?
- architectural accessibility (lecture halls)
- prohibitive costs
- discriminatory practices and policies
- accessible transportation
- lack of appropriate opportunities
- lack of staff/teacher training and awareness
What are the nine steps to the inclusion process?
- ) obtain information
- ) identify support
- ) define safety concerns
- ) assess skills
- ) set realistic objectives
- ) contribute to I.E.P./I.P.P
- ) select activities
- ) make modifications
- ) implement and evaluate
1. OBTAINING INFORMATION
- age, skill level, fitness level, interests, goals
- participants behaviour/attitude towards active living
- past physical activity experience
- nature of disability
- nature of the activity
- venue/environment in which the activity will take place
- requirements for the activity (equipment cost)
2. IDENTIFY SUPPORTS
- identify persons who currently support and/or who can provide support in the future
- participants, family members, therapists
- recognize and respect when no support is needed
3. DEFINE SAFETY CONCERNS
- respect personal space
- wear protective clothing, footwear, and equipment
- know triggers for seizures, breathing difficulties, visual limitations,
- know participants limits and respect that they know their limits too
- be cognizant of environmental factors (sunscreen, layered clothing)
- if it limits other abilities (using blind folds)
3. DEFINE SAFETY CONCERNS
- ensure equipment and assertive devices are in good condition and proper working order
- select equipment appropriate to age, skill, and ability level
- require and provide protective equipment
3. DEFINE SAFETY CONCERNS
- set up/structure the environment to ensure safety
- consider the playing surface
- be aware of temperature issues
- familiarize them with the environment
- ensure things are clean/reduce clutter
- ensure appropriate levels of lighting
- ensure proper signage
3. DEFINE SAFETY CONCERNS
- use clear, concise instructions
- ensure eye contact and clear visual path to instructor during instructional sessions
- uses cues and prompts
- adjust your activity set up if relevant
- utilize rules if necessary
- have a clear stop signal; and utilize it
4. ASSESS SKILLS
- assessment is the cornerstone of appropriate programming, implementation and evaluation
- needed to ensure individuals receive appropriate instruction
5. SET REALISTIC OBJECTIVES
- objective are stepping stone to the ultimate goal and provide the framework for working towards achievement of the goal
- SMART goals
6. CONTRIBUTE TO IEP IPP
- individualized plan
- in a school setting, this plan is called an IEP
- principle of planning is important tin all settings
7. SELECT ACTIVITIES
- choose activities appropriate for the interests, age and capabilities of the individuals concerned
- activity selection may be based on:
- the expressed interest of the participants
- program criteria
- activities suitable for the situation
8. MAKE MODIFICATIONS
- only modify when necessary
- participants can be modified
- activity (rules, scoring, skills)
- cooperation vs competitiveness (teamwork)
- group dynamics to take emphasis off winning and individual skills
- substitution instead of elimination
- how you instruct
9. IMPLEMENT AND EVALUATE
9. IMPLEMENT AND EVALUATE
- be present and observe
- peer involvement
- what teaching techniques work and don’t
- enough communication with others involved with the participant
- equipment needs
What is an assessment?
- process of estimation or measuring the levels of ability, characteristics, or personal values of an individual
- “a process of collecting data for the purpose of making decisions about people”
Why do we need to assess?
- accurately measure a persona skills, limitations, patterns and restrictions
- determine if someone is eligible for service, support, continued support (screening)
- determine appropriate intervention strategies
- monitor change and progress over time
- to predict outcomes
- employer/funding agents require evidence
- legal obligation
What is participant involved assessment?
- individual is involved in decision making process to the largest extent possible
What is clinical assessment?
- expert decides what to do
- individual follows recommendations
What are two types of information collected during assessment?
- objective and subjective
What is objective information?
- emphasizes features and characteristics
- objective when two individuals can measure and observe the object and come up with the same result
What is an example of objective information?
- distance one can walk, ability to initiate conversation, muscular strength, endurance, flexibility
What is subjective information?
- information about a thought or feeling, or something that exists only in an individuals mind
- two individuals are unable to come up with the same results
What is an example of subjective information?
- boredom with the environment, art work preference, attitudes towards leisure activities
What is a norm referenced assessment?
- standardized test collect performance data
- compare to other people
- specific conditions
- ensure we measure ability without influences of environment
What is a criterion-referenced assessment?
- compare performance against set of criteria
i. e.) compare components of the skills or movement patterns
What is non-standardized assessment?
- meets the needs of the profession but has not been vigorously tested
- provides the professional with a guided format developed to see needs
- usually used in combo with other types of assessment
What is standardized assessment?
- systematic procedures for testing behaviour or measuring attitudes
- limited range of answers
- tested for validity and reliability
- established procedures for scoring and interpreting
What is validity?
- how well the assessment measures what it is supposed to measure
- does the instrument measure what it intends to measure?
What are the four types of validity?
- content, criterion related, constructed, clinical
What is content validity?
- how well the assessment measures the scope of the subject matter and behaviour under consideration
- determined by comparing the content of the test to the possible elements that might be measured
What is criterion-related validity?
- tells us how well the tests scores compare to what is being measured
- to measure, compare measurement with another way of measuring the same thing
- how closely do scores compare between an established tool and a new tool?
What is construct validity?
- how well have we described the content so that it can be accurately measured
- did we select the right way to measure the content and criterion information
What is clinical validity?
- measures how well results can be used to predict performance and health care outcomes
What is reliability?
- how accurately and consistently does the assessment measure what it is supposed to measure?
- means of determining how much error is present
What are stability measures?
- how stable is the assessment over time?
- test-retest: the relationship between scores obtained on two different occasions
What is equivalency-form reliability?
- estimates the consistency between two forms of a test with slightly different items
What is internal consistency?
- compares two halves of the test and can be measured and compared
What is inter-rater reliability?
- two different professionals come up with the same findings in the same situation
- written so multiple professionals interpret performance the same
- professionals follow the same protocol each time the assessment is conducted
What are movement skills?
- organized sequence of movements directed toward a desired outcome
- coordination of different body parts to produce a total movement
- adaptive in the sense that you can alter movement organization to adjust to the environment
Are movement skills the same for everyone?
i. e.) a baby uses its hands too eat, whereas an adult uses a fork
Classification of movement skills
(Functional Movement Skill) 3. Specialized Movement Skills 2. Fundamental Movement Skills 1. Early Movement Milestones *Motor Abilities (Foundations of Movement Skills)
What are movement skill foundations?
- aspects of an individual that facilitate or limit performance of movement skills
- deficits in one of the foundation ares can lead to a deficit in one or more movement skills
What are the 11 commonly assessed movement skill foundations?
- balance/postural control
- cardiovascular endurance
- neurological functioning and reflexes
- body composition
- motivation and affect
- sensation/sensory integration/perception
- body size and morphology
- flexibility/range of motion
- muscular strength and endurance
How can we assess motor abilities?
- composed of a variety of movement tasks grouped into one or more ability areas such as agility, balance, or coordination
- measure general traits or capacities that underline performance of a wide variety of motor skills
What some early movement milestones?
- locomotor and object control skills that emerge before a child attains upright or bipedal locomotion
- crawling, creeping, sitting, standing, walking and object manipulation
Why are EMM important?
- they assist in assessing motor development
What are fundamental motor skills?
- locomotor and object control skills performed in an upright or bipedal position
- *** used by persona in all cultures of the world
What does phylogenetic mean?
- relating to the evolutionary development and diversification of a species or group of organisms, or of a particular feature of an organism
What are some examples of fundamental motor skills?
- walking, throwing, running, jumping, sliding, hopping, leaping, catching, striking, bouncing, kicking, pulling, pushing
What are the ages when fundamental skills are developed?
- between 1 and 7 years old
What are specialized movement skills?
- “mature fundamental movement patterns that have been refined and combined to form sport skills and other specific and complex movement skills”
- combination and variation of one or more early movement milestones and/or fundamental movement skills
What is an “ontogenetic skill”?
- skills that need to be taught and developed
What are some examples of specialized movement skills?
- pitching a ball, spiking a volleyball, shooting a free throw, triple jump, sewing a button, hammering a nail
What are functional movement skills?
- can be EMM, FMS, or SMS
- performed in their natural meaningful contexts
- activities of daily living at home, work, or play
What are some examples of functional movement skills?
- infant sitting in crib
- throwing a ball to a friend
What is the TGMD-2?
- norm and criterion referenced
- measures gross motor functioning
- assessment for children aged 3-10
- examines qualitative components of fundamental motor skills based on a normative component
What are the uses of the TGMD-2?
- identify children who are behind their peers
- plan an instructional program
- assess individual progress
- evaluate the success of the program
- serve as a measurement instrument in research
What are gross motor patterns?
- locomotor sub-teams such as running, galloping, hopping, leaping, horizontal jump, and sliding
What does the object control subtest measure?
- striking a stationary ball, stationary dribble, catch, kick, overhand throw, underhand roll
What is the procedure for TGMD-2?
- observe and analyze the specific performance criteria for all 12 skills
- provide one demo that includes all the performance criteria
- give the child one practice to make sure they understand the task
- give the child 2 test trials
How is the TGMD-2 scored?
- each skill has specific performance criteria representing the mature pattern of the skill
- if they meet criteria=1
- if they don’t=0
- raw score = sum of 1s and 0s
What does IDBL stand for?
- Idyll Arbor leisure battery
What is the Idyll Arbor leisure battery?
- comprised of four individual assessments that are taken together so the assessor gains a broad understanding of a persons leisure attitude and a persons leisure lifestyle
What does the leisure attitude measurement assess?
- assess attitude toward leisure on three different levels: cognitive, affective, and behavioural
What does the leisure interest measurement assess?
- identifies interests in each of the eight domains of leisure activities: physical, outdoor, mechanical, artistic, service, social, cultural, and reading
What does the leisure motivation measurement assess?
- measures motivation for participating in leisure activities
- four key motivators: intellectual, social, competence-mastery, stimulus-avoidance
What does the leisure satisfaction measurement assess?
- identifies what need are being met during leisure
What are some strategies for movement skill assessment and instruction?
- bottom-up strategy
- top-down strategy
- ecological task analysis
What is the bottom-up strategy for movement assessment and instruction?
- Initial assessment begins with foundations, motor abilities, or early movement milestones
- Examines deficits of components of function (strength, range of motion, balance etc)
- Lower-level deficits must be corrected before preceding to next level
What are the primary goals of the bottom-up strategy for movement skill assessment and instruction?
- movement skills foundation
- basic skills
What are the advantages of the bottom-up strategy for movement skill assessment and instruction?
- provides sound base for learning future skills
- experience success at each step
- well suited for young learners and PWD
What are the disadvantages of the bottom-up strategy for movement skill assessment and instruction?
- time consuming
- deprived of opportunities
- exclusive emphasis on movement skill foundations
- not very motivating
What is the top-down strategy for movement assessment and instruction?
- task-specific strategy (step down skill hierarchy)
- forces instructors to focus on critical skills
- combines adapted physical education and developmental physical education (improve skills)
What the is primary goal of the top-down strategy for movement assessment and instruction?
- to help the person experience success while performing skills in their natural context
How does the top-down strategy for movement assessment and instruction work?
- identify target skill then look for inefficient movement and investigate ability components
- ask “what specific abilities does this person need to work on the achieve this skill?”
What are the advantages of the top-down strategy for movement assessment and instruction?
- considers the ultimate goal
- student sees what needs to be addressed
- takes less time, efficient and motivating
- useful for older learners
What are the disadvantages of the top-down strategy for movement assessment and instruction?
- specific functional movement skill may be beyond the capabilities of student
What is the ecological task analysis strategy for movement assessment and instruction?
- suggests that there is not just one best way to perform a skill
- encourages professionals to think about movement performance in terms of the independent and interactive influences
- not compared to others based on ‘norms’
- what an environment offers to a person in terms of action (perception is dif for everyone)
What are the three main factors that influence movement performance in the ecological task analysis model strategy for movement assessment and instruction?
- task goal, the environment, and characteristics of the performer
What is the main goal of the ecological task analysis strategy for movement assessment and instruction?
- to understand what a person can do in a particular context
- look at the big picture: motor skills based on functional task goals
What does the ecological task analysis strategy for movement assessment and instruction look into?
- object manipulation
- object propulsion and reception
- postural maintenance and orientation (position of the body)
In the ecological task analysis strategy for movement assessment and instruction, what are the three outcomes factors analyzed?
- task goal orientation
- environmental conditions
- performer characteristics
What are the steps of the ecological task analysis strategy for movement assessment and instruction?
- establish task goal to be assessed
- what are constraints and avoidances of the environment?
- allow choices for movement solutions
- allow child to choose skill/form to meet goal
- manipulate variables
- what conditions should you be aware of? (physical, social, emotional)
What are the benefits of the ecological task analysis strategy for movement assessment and instruction?
encourages uniqueness, step towards inclusion, take not of what conditions are necessary for success