What are learning disabilities?
- refers to a number of disorders which may affect the acquisition, organization, retention, understanding or use of verbal or nonverbal information.
What is a key aspect of learning disabilities compared to intellectual disabilities?
- affect learning in individuals who otherwise demonstrate at least average abilities essential for thinking and/or reasoning.
- IQ is average
Basic key points of learning disability
- heterogeneous group of disorders
- not due to other disabilities
- identifiable or inferred CNS dysfunction
- not an intellectual disability
Results from impairments in one or more processes related to….. which effects?
- perceiving, thinking, remembering or learning.
ex. ) language processing; phonological processing; visual spatial processing; memory and attention
What are some examples of severity that can interfere with the acquisition of academics?
- oral language: listening, speaking, understanding
- reading: decoding, phonetic knowledge, comprehension
- written language: spelling and writing
- mathematics: computation, problem solving
Do learning disabilities go away?
- no they are lifelong
Can people with learning disabilities experience motor disabilities?
- yes, they can experience perceptual motor, motor coordination, movement related problems
What is DCD?
- developmental coordination disorder
What is the definition of DCD?
- coordination is substantially below that expected given the person’s chronological age and measured intelligence
How can DCD be flagged?
- may be marked delays in achieving motor milestones, dropping things, poor performance in sports, or poor handwriting, psychosocial difficulties, withdraw from physical activity
What is the diagnosis of DCD?
- condition significantly interferes with academic achievement or ADL
- the condition is not caused by a general medical disorder or PDD
- if ID is present, the motor difficulties are in excess of those usually associated with it
What are some specific problems and physical considerations related to learning disabilities/DCD
- immature body image and agnosias
- poor spatial orientation
- overflow movements
- dissociation and figure background
- motor planning and sequencing
What does it mean to have an immature body image and agnosias?
- inability to identify body parts
- inability to recognize objects by use of sense
- difficulty in making judgment about body shape
- temporal organization, rhythm and force
How can we improve immature body image and agnosias?
- through action songs, dances and games that refer to body parts
What does it mean to have poor spatial orientation?
- unsure of direction, difficult to estimate height, distance, width…bump into things, hard to duck or step over.
How can we improve poor spatial orientation?
- recommended games must involve obstacle courses, mazes and maps. orienteering, and treasure hunts are good.
- include cue detection as well as self-talk and rehearsal
What does it mean to have difficulty with overflow movements?
- inability to keep opposite limbs motionless when performing tasks with other arm
What does it mean to have difficulty with dissociation and figure background?
- problems perceiving and organizing parts into wholes,
easier to engage in whole body activities so focus only on one thing
How can we improve dissociation and figure background?
- figure background…inability to pick out figure out of complex background
What does it mean to have difficulty with motor planning and sequencing?
- difficult to initiate movement, stop movement,
put movement into correct order.
How can we improve motor planning and sequencing?
- intervention involves games, dance, water play and gymnastic routines, in which an increasing number of movements must be remembered and chained into sequences
What does it mean to have difficulty with temporal organization, rhythm and force?
- difficult to organize parts into wholes, lack of
rhythm to dance
How can we improve difficulty with temporal organization, rhythm and force?
- include early instruction to music, rhythm, and dance.
- use background music or a strong percussive beet.
What are some instruction strategies and considerations?
- matching cognitive style
- self-talk and verbal rehearsal
- motivation and self concept enhancement
What is modality?
- the way or mode in which something exists or is done
- for teaching, visual vs audio
What does it mean to be field dependent?
- strongly influenced by the visual field
- fast conceptual tempo, spend little time planning, and need external structure.
What does it mean to be field independent?
- focus on details, analytical, reflective
What are some aspects of self-talk and verbal rehearsal in regards to instruction?
- successful in helping children learn motor
sequences, improve performance and control impulsivity.
- self talk usually refers to talking oneself through an activity or sequence.
Why is it important to assert motivation and self concept enhancement?
- may have lower self concept and esteem due to repeated failures or bad experiences
- provide opps for success and activities that are meaningful