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Define Emergency Care

Pre-hospital assessment and basic care for the sick or injured patient


What does EMS stand for?

Emergency Medical System


Describe the role of EMS

The chain of human resources and services linked together to provide continuous emergency care from the onset of care at the prehospital scene, during transport, and on arrival at the medical facility.


What does NHTSA stand for ?

National Highway Traffic Safety Administration


What role does the NHTSA play in EMS?

It assists states in developing and assessing the 10 identified components of an integrated EMS system.


What are the 10 key components of an integrated EMS system?

1. Regulation & Policy
2. Resource Management
3. Human Resources and Training
4. Transportation
5. Facilities
6. Communications
7. Public Information and Education
8. Medical Direction
9. Trauma Systems
10. Evaluation


What is the definition of Medical Director?

A physician who assumes ULTIMATE RESPONSIBILITY for MEDICAL OVERSIGHT of the patient care aspects of the EMS system.


What is Medical Direction?

The medical oversight provided for an EMS System or one of its components by a licensed physician.


Describe the Scope of Practice Model

A NATIONAL model that defines the scope of care for all levels of EMS training.


What are National EMS Education Standards?

The education and training standards developed by the NHTSA for all levels of EMS training.


What are the 4 levels of EMS provider?

1. EMR - Emergency Medical Responder
2. EMT - Emergency Medical Technician
3. AEMT - Advanced Emergency Medical Technician
4. Paramedic


Describe EMR level of training

The person who is often first to arrive at the scene. This training emphasizes scene safety and how to provide immediate care for life-threatening injuries and illnesses, as well as how to assist ambulance personnel when they arrive.


Describe EMT level of training

The basic or minimum level of certification for ambulance personnel. Emphasizes assessment and the care and transportation of the ill or injured patient. Also, EMTs may assist with administration of certain common medications.


Describe AEMT level of training

A Basic level EMT who has received specific additional training in specific areas, allowing some level of ALS (advanced life support). They may be able to perform starting IV lines, inserting advanced airways, and administering medications.


Describe Paramedic level of training

Trained EMS personnel trained to perform what is commonly referred to as ALS (advanced life support) such as inserting endotracheal tubes and starting IV lines. They also administer medications, interpret electrocardiograms (ECG), monitor cardiac rhythms, and perform cardiac defibrillation.


What is Scope of Practice?

The care that an EMR, EMT, or Paramedic is allowed and supposed to provide according to state, local, or regional regulations or statutes (also referred to as scope of care).


What is a PSAP and its role?

Primary Safety Answering Point - a designated 911 emergency dispatch center


What is an EMD and their role?

Emergency Medical Dispatcher - a member of the EMS system who provides pre-arrival instructions to callers, thereby helping to initiate lifesaving care before EMS personnel arrive.


What is a Specialty Hospital?

A hospital with special designation meaning that it is capable of providing specialized services (such as trauma care, pediatric care, or burn care).


What are Protocols?

Written guidelines that direct the care EMS personnel provide patients.


What are Standing Orders?

The Medical Director's specific instructions for the EMR, EMT, or Paramedic to provide care for specific medical conditions or injuries.


What is Off-line Medical Direction?

An EMS system's standing orders and protocols which authorize personnel to perform particular skills in certain situations without actually speaking to the Medical Director (also called indirect medical direction).


What is On-line Medical Direction?

Orders to perform a skill or administer care from the on-duty physician; given to the rescuer in person by radio or phone (also called direct medical direction).


Define PPE

Personal Protective Equipment


What is the primary concern as an EMR at the scene?

Personal Safety


What PPE equipment minimizes contact with infectious material?

* Disposable Protective Gloves
* Barrier Devices, such as pocket face mask with one-way valves and special filters
* Protective Eye Wear, such as goggles or face shields
* Special Face Masks with filters
* Gowns or Aprons


Typically what minimum PPE would you use at the scene?

Protective Gloves and possibly Face Mask


When does a victim become a patient?

Once you start to carry out the duties of an EMR.


What is the first thing you do upon arrival at the scene?

Size up the scene - Scene Safety is the first concern, even before patient care.


After personal and scene safety, what do you do first?

Determine the Patients Chief Complaint.