Wellness and Safety of the EMR Chapter 3 Flashcards Preview

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Define baseline health status

A pre-employment medical examination to determine overall health status prior to beginning a job.


Define standard precautions

Guidelines recommended by CDC (Centers for Disease Control and prevention) that take steps to take to protect against exposure to body fluids.


Define universal precautions

A component of standard precautions that includes the philosophy that all patients are considered infectious until proven otherwise.


What does BSI stand for?

Body substance isolation


Define BSI

The practice of using specific barriers to minimize contact with the patient's blood and body fluids.


Define exposure as it relates to EMR

A condition of being subjected to fluid or substance capable of transmitting an infectious agent.


Identify the four routes by which pathogens enter the body

1. Ingestion
2. injection
3. absorption
4. inhalation


Define infection

The condition in which the body is invaded by a disease causing agent.


Define pathogen

An organism such as a virus or bacterium that causes infection and disease.


What is PPE?

Personal protective equipment such as gloves, mask, eyewear, gown, turnout gear, and helmet that protect rescuers from infection and/or from exposure to hazardous material in the dangers of rescue operations.


What are the four diseases most common to EMR's?

1. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)
2. hepatitis
3. tuberculosis
4. meningitis


Describe ways AIDS or HIV can be transmitted.

1. Needle sticks
2. blood splash on mucous membranes (eye, mouth), or
3. blood contact with open skin


Describe ways hepatitis B virus (HBV) can be transmitted.

Needlesticks, blood splash on mucous membranes (eye, mouth), or blood contact with open skin; some risk during mouth-to-mouth CPR, and exposure to contaminated equipment and dried blood.


Describe ways tuberculosis (TB) can be transmitted.

Airborne aerosolized droplets


Describe how meningitis is transmitted.

Respiratory secretions or saliva


Of the four diseases most common to EMR's which have vaccines?

Hepatitis B virus (HBV), and
meningitis (for one strain)


What does an NFPA stand for?

National Fire Protection Association


Dried body fluids are potentially infectious. true or false



Following exposure to the skin what must you do?

Immediately wash the area with warm water and soap.


Where should you document the details of exposure?

On the appropriate form included in your employers exposure control plan.


Who should you report any exposure to?

Your company or agency infection control plan administrator.


When is it appropriate to withhold emergency care from a patient you think may have an infectious disease?



With the proper precautions you can provide emergency care to people infected with what diseases?

All diseases (including HIV or HBV without putting yourself at risk).


To date, how many cases are known for emergency workers contracting HIV or HBV during routine patient care using gloves and appropriate PPE?

To date there are no known cases.


Before approaching the patient ensure scene safety for who?

Yourself, the patient, and bystanders.


What are you required to do upon liquid or droplet exposure to skin, hair, gloves, clothing, and equipment?

Contact with any unknown microbe or potential pathogen may require being seen by a physician.


Describe the proper removal of gloves.

Begin by grasping the outer cuff of the opposite glove. Carefully slip the glove over the hand, turning it inside out. Slip a finger of the ungloved hand under the cuff. Carefully slip it off, turning it inside out. Once removed, both gloves will end up inside out with one glove inside the other. This will contain any blood or body fluids.


List the 5 most well known pathogens that in recent years have received significant attention from the CDC and the media.

1. Swine flu (H1N1)
2. Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)
3. West Nile virus
4. Avian Flu
5. Methicillian-resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)


Define hazardous materials incident.

The release of a harmful substance into the environment (Also called a hazmat incident).


What should you look for to identify hazardous materials?

Plackards that are color-coded and have numbers listed in the US Department of Transportation emergency response guidebook.