Introduction, Definitions And Tumor Nomenclature Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Introduction, Definitions And Tumor Nomenclature Deck (9)
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Neoplasia

A state of poorly regulated cell growth in which neoplasticism cells are said to be transformed
Failure of normal cell mechanisms to control cell proliferation and maturation
Persists after cessation of stimulus
'Cancer'

1

Hyperplasia

Proliferation of cells in response to a stimulus
Physiological or pathological
Stop when stimulus removed

2

Anaplasia

Loss of differentiation of cells
Often increase proliferation

3

Differentiation

How close in appearance the cells of a tumour are to the cell type from which they are derived
Well differentiated-> closely resemble cell of origin
Poorly differentiated-> bear little resemblance of cell of origin but enough to be identified
Undifferentiated/anaplastic-> cells which are so undifferentiated their cell of origin is unknown

4

Benign tumour

Grow by expansion
Well definined
Do not infiltrate
Stay at site of origin and don't spread
Usually slow growing and well differentiated
Oma

5

Malignant tumour

Grow by expansion and infiltration
Poorly defined
Compress and invade adjacent tissue
Can spread to distant sites-> metastasise
Sarcoma

6

Epithelial tumour nomenclature

Benign:
Squamous and transitional 'surface epithelium' epithelium-> papilloma-> prefixed by cell of origin
Glandular epithelium-> adenoma-> prefixed by organ of origin
Malignant-> carcinoma
Glandular-> adenocarcinoma
Other epithelial types prefixed by cell type of origin

7

Mesenchymal tumours

Support cell or muscle
Benign-> 'oma'
Malignant-> 'sarcoma'
Prefixed by tissue of origin
Bone-> osteo
Fibrous-> fibro
Cartilage->chondro
Adipose-> lipolyisis
Smooth muscle-> leiomyo
Skeletal muscle-> rhabdomyo

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Other tumours

Germ cell-> from ovaries/testes-> can differentiate in to anything
Teratomas-> germ cell tumour that differentiates in to the 3 Embryological germ cell layers
Embryonal-> primitive Embryonal blastic tissue-> blastomas
Gliomas-> non neural support tissue of brain! glial cells
Melanoma-> melanocytes
Lymphoma-> lymp
Leukaemia-> haempoietic cells

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