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Flashcards in Introduction to epidemiology Deck (25):
1

What are mortality rates?

the number of deaths in a given area or time period or from a particular disease

2

What statistics are needed for mortality rates?

- a dominator population
- timeframe

3

How is the incidence rate calculated?

no. of new people with outcome over a time period / total person-time for people in a group at risk
x 100,000

4

What is incidence?

number of new cases

5

What is prevalence?

proportion of population that has a disease

6

What are the two types of prevalence?

point
period

7

How is point prevalence rate calculated?

no. of people with outcome at a point in time / total number of people in the group
x 100

8

How is period prevalence rate calculated?

no. of people with outcome during a time period / average number of people in group
x 100

9

What does sporadic mean?

occasional cases occurring irregularly

10

What does endemic mean?

persistent background level of occurrence

11

What does epidemic mean?

occurrence in excess of the expected level for a given time period

12

What does pandemic mean?

epidemic occurring in or spreading over more than one continent

13

What are the different types of exposures?

no-modifiable
modifiable
interventions

14

How is the risk calculated?

number of outcomes in a group / number of people in the group
x 100

15

How is relative risk calculated?

risk in exposed / risk in unexposed

16

How is relative risk reduction calculated?

(1 - relative risk) x 100

17

How is absolute risk reduction calculated?

risk in unexposed - risk in exposed

18

How is number needed to treat calculated?

1 / absolute risk reduction

19

How does the hierarchy of evidence work?

those at the top of the pyramid are more likely to influence clinical practice

20

How does a cross-sectional study work?

1. sample a population
2. estimate the proportion
3. use data

21

How does a case-control study work?

1. select cases with an outcome
2. select controls without an outcome
3. explore exposures in cases and controls
4. compare exposures to work out cause

22

How does a cohort study work?

1. select people without an outcome
2. classify according to exposure
3. compare risk of disease in exposed and unexposed

23

How does a randomised controlled trial work?

1. random allocation
2. compare risk or outcome in intervention and control groups
3. used to test new drugs

24

What is a confounding variable?

one which can cause disease under study and also associated with the exposure of interest

25

What are the aspects of causality?

strength
consistency
temporality
biological gradient
plausibility
experiment
coherence
analogy