Flashcards in Introduction to Psychiatry I Deck (81):
What type of disorder is associated with significant distress or disability to a patient's life?
Chlorpromazine, or Thorazine, was the first psychotropic medication used. What type of qualities did this medication have?
Chlorpromazine, or Thorazine, was the first psychotropic medication used. What two aspects of disorders did this medication treat?
Chlorpromazine controls the signs and symptoms of a patients disease.
Chlorpromazine, or Thorazine, was the first psychotropic medication used. Permitted patients to leave what establishment and rejoin the community?
Chlorpromazine, or Thorazine, was the first psychotropic medication used. This allowed patients to rejoin their families in the community. What was a negative side effect?
Increase rise in outpatient cost for treatment of their disorder
President Kennedy signed the Community Mental Health Center Law. This sponsored the building of facilities that had a milieu effect. What did the environmental institutions resemble, instead of a sterile asylum?
Internal environment resembled a social setting
The Medicare Modernization Act and Medicaid acts extended health coverage to all American's over what age? Also provided healthcare services to individuals with what?
65 years. Disabilities.
Overtime, the government moved to de-instituitonalized psychiatric hospitals. What did unintentional outcome occurred as a result of this?
Increase in the homeless population
What does the term criminalization of the mentally ill mean?
The mentally ill were being incarcerated
What does psychiatrization of criminal behavior mean?
Criminals were malingering, or pretending to have symptoms of psychiatric disorders, to avoid prosecution and sentencing into prisons.
What national alliance corrected the disparity in the health care coverage between medicine related disorders and psychiatric related disorders?
National Alliance for the Mentally Ill.
The Public Law 102-321 established grants for states to fund community health services exclusively for patients with what type of illness who were unable to pay for care?
Serious mental illness
Definition of a serious mental illness. What type of interference must be present?
Definition of a serious mental illness. How many major life activities must be affected?
One or more major life activities.
What model defines normality by the absence of pathology and defines abnormality as what the patient "has"?
The Disease Model
What model defines normality by number, such as, what a patient is in terms of gradation and quantifications that identifies the typical or most common heavers among a group of people as being normal for that group?
The Dimension Model
In the dimension model, normality exists in what area of the standard curve?
Area under the curve
In the dimension model, abnormality exists in what area of the standard curve?
Tails of the curve
Which model states that normality and abnormality is an aggregate of development, social learning, behavioral, and psychoanalytic development?
The Self Model
Which area of the self model states that normality is determined by chronological maturation? This essentially describes what the person becomes.
Abraham Maslow was a notable developmental theorist. He stated that normality is attained by mastering what of needs?
Hierarchy of needs
Jean Piaget was a notable developmental theorist. He stated that normality is attained by what process? This process describes that children increase the capacity to understand their world.
Jean Paiget states that there are four stages of normal development which children go through. Which describes the stage where children different self from objects and achieve object permanence?
Jean Paiget states that there are four stages of normal development which children go through. What operational stage describes when language is learned to represent objects?
Jean Paiget states that there are four stages of normal development which children go through. What operational stage describes when a child can think logically and classify object according to features and can order them in series?
Jean Paiget states that there are four stages of normal development which children go through. What operational stage describes when children have logical thinking, deductive reasoning, and systemic planning?
Erik Erikson was a developmental theorist. He stated that normal and abnormal behavior occurs through stages of what cycle?
Erik Erikson was a developmental theorist. He stated that if challenges were not successfully accomplished, the individual will perpetuate what type of reactions at each successive stage?
What learning model states that normality exists when the organisms are self-regulating while abnormality exists when there is dissonance among the organisms system?
Social Learning Model
Margaret Mahler identified stages of social learning. What stage states that baby sleeps more than she is awake asking to intrauterine life?
Margaret Mahler identified stages of social learning. What stage states that mother and child form a single unit?
Margaret Mahler identified stages of social learning. What stage describes the point where a child becomes aware of the separation of self from mother.
Margaret Mahler identified stages of social learning. What stage describes when a child becomes aware of the world and their relative autonomous place in the world and darts away from the mother?
Margaret Mahler identified stages of social learning. What stage is described when the child realizes they are not autonomous and remains helpful and dependent? The child returns to mother to emotionally refuel?
Margaret Mahler identified stages of social learning. What stage describes the time where a child recognizes that other people have separate identities? The child realizes that they have a unique identity.
John Bowlby developed what concept to explain infants development?
Attachment Disorder Concept
What model states that normal or abnormal behavior is the result of condition?
What type of conditioning is associated with environmental cues and not the result of instinct? A specific response occurs when paired with a stimulus.
What type of conditioning describes behaviors that are reinforced are likely to be repeated, whether, they are good or bad?
BF Skinner established what type of conditioning?
BF Skinner established operant conditioning. What type of Reinforecement and Punishment is associated with something being added?
BF Skinner established operant conditioning. What type of Reinforecement and Punishment is associated with something being taken away?
What describes something added increases the likelihood that desired behavior will be repeated?
What describes a noxious or unpleasant stimulus being added to decrease unwanted behavior?
What describes the likelihood of a heavier to re-occur if something is taken away from the situation?
What describes the likelihood of a behavior by invoking some punishment to be used as a deterrent when the behavior is exhibited by removing something good?
Sigmund Freud developed what type of developmental stage?
What stage describes an infant using their oral cavity to explore the world?
What type of fixated personality describes an individual who is highly dependent and passive and wants everything done for them?
What stage describes the period of neuromuscular control over anal spinchters?
What fixated personality describes an individual who is rigid, overly organized OR contains little self-control, disorganized, defiant, and hostile?
Anal retentive and anal expulsive, respectively.
What stage does a child establish gender identity?
What type of fixated personality describes an individual who is promiscuous, amoral, asexual, or puritanical (overtly religous)?
What stage is associated with learning the environment, play, and making friends?
What stage is a time of maturity and enhancement of life such as reproduction, intellectual and artistic creativity?
Puberty or Genital Stage
The Id, Ego, and Superego are classified as what?
Structures of the Mind
What structure is the pleasure principle?
What structure is the reality principle and is the rational part of the mind?
What structure is the perfection ideal or moral part of the mind?
The topographical theory of the mind includes what three structures?
Conscious, unconscious, and preconscious
What is the mental process that makes us aware of both external and internal perceptions and is bound by time?
What structure is not bound by the time?
What structure is the mental process that serves as the transitional unit between the unconscious material to the conscious level?
What describes the feelings a patient has towards the clinician because the clinician reminds the patient of someone from the patient's present or past?
What describes a clinician developing feelings and attitudes towards the patient because the patient reminds the clinician of someone from the clinic's present or past?
Distorts facts of reality.
Forgetting painful conscious feelings.
Not thinking about unpleasant feelings. The undesirable feelings are available but deliberately ignored.
Unacceptable personal feelings that are transferred onto someone or something else?
A reaction to a situation perceived as dangerous is not targeted at the cause of anxiety but aimed at another target considered to be more benign and less threatening that the original target.
Behavior that is opposite to the impulses or feelings that one is trying to repress.
Thinking to a more children-like farm of referenced when confronted with a siutation that produces anxiety or fear.
Refusal to advance to successive stages of development because progress has become associated with anxiety in some wat.
Adopting characteristics of someone else to cope with a fear of losing the person with whom one identifies
Attempt to deny one's true motives to oneself or others by using self-serving explanations.
Rechanneling the energy connected with an unacceptable impulse into one that is more socially acceptable.
Separating feelings from cognitive awareness.
Using ideas to distance the person from an unacceptable feeling
Involves dealing with stress by using action rather than reflection or feelings
Indirectly and unassertively expressing aggression toward others