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Flashcards in Introduction to Psychiatry I Deck (81):
1

What type of disorder is associated with significant distress or disability to a patient's life?

Mental Disorder

2

Chlorpromazine, or Thorazine, was the first psychotropic medication used. What type of qualities did this medication have?

sedative qualities

3

Chlorpromazine, or Thorazine, was the first psychotropic medication used. What two aspects of disorders did this medication treat?

Chlorpromazine controls the signs and symptoms of a patients disease.

4

Chlorpromazine, or Thorazine, was the first psychotropic medication used. Permitted patients to leave what establishment and rejoin the community?

Asylums

5

Chlorpromazine, or Thorazine, was the first psychotropic medication used. This allowed patients to rejoin their families in the community. What was a negative side effect?

Increase rise in outpatient cost for treatment of their disorder

6

President Kennedy signed the Community Mental Health Center Law. This sponsored the building of facilities that had a milieu effect. What did the environmental institutions resemble, instead of a sterile asylum?

Internal environment resembled a social setting

7

The Medicare Modernization Act and Medicaid acts extended health coverage to all American's over what age? Also provided healthcare services to individuals with what?

65 years. Disabilities.

8

Overtime, the government moved to de-instituitonalized psychiatric hospitals. What did unintentional outcome occurred as a result of this?

Increase in the homeless population

9

What does the term criminalization of the mentally ill mean?

The mentally ill were being incarcerated

10

What does psychiatrization of criminal behavior mean?

Criminals were malingering, or pretending to have symptoms of psychiatric disorders, to avoid prosecution and sentencing into prisons.

11

What national alliance corrected the disparity in the health care coverage between medicine related disorders and psychiatric related disorders?

National Alliance for the Mentally Ill.

12

The Public Law 102-321 established grants for states to fund community health services exclusively for patients with what type of illness who were unable to pay for care?

Serious mental illness

13

Definition of a serious mental illness. What type of interference must be present?

Substantial

14

Definition of a serious mental illness. How many major life activities must be affected?

One or more major life activities.

15

What model defines normality by the absence of pathology and defines abnormality as what the patient "has"?

The Disease Model

16

What model defines normality by number, such as, what a patient is in terms of gradation and quantifications that identifies the typical or most common heavers among a group of people as being normal for that group?

The Dimension Model

17

In the dimension model, normality exists in what area of the standard curve?

Area under the curve

18

In the dimension model, abnormality exists in what area of the standard curve?

Tails of the curve

19

Which model states that normality and abnormality is an aggregate of development, social learning, behavioral, and psychoanalytic development?

The Self Model

20

Which area of the self model states that normality is determined by chronological maturation? This essentially describes what the person becomes.

Developmental

21

Abraham Maslow was a notable developmental theorist. He stated that normality is attained by mastering what of needs?

Hierarchy of needs

22

Jean Piaget was a notable developmental theorist. He stated that normality is attained by what process? This process describes that children increase the capacity to understand their world.

Maturation

23

Jean Paiget states that there are four stages of normal development which children go through. Which describes the stage where children different self from objects and achieve object permanence?

Sensori-Motor.

24

Jean Paiget states that there are four stages of normal development which children go through. What operational stage describes when language is learned to represent objects?

Pre-operational

25

Jean Paiget states that there are four stages of normal development which children go through. What operational stage describes when a child can think logically and classify object according to features and can order them in series?

Concrete operational

26

Jean Paiget states that there are four stages of normal development which children go through. What operational stage describes when children have logical thinking, deductive reasoning, and systemic planning?

Formal operational

27

Erik Erikson was a developmental theorist. He stated that normal and abnormal behavior occurs through stages of what cycle?

Life Cycle

28

Erik Erikson was a developmental theorist. He stated that if challenges were not successfully accomplished, the individual will perpetuate what type of reactions at each successive stage?

Abnormal reactions

29

What learning model states that normality exists when the organisms are self-regulating while abnormality exists when there is dissonance among the organisms system?

Social Learning Model

30

Margaret Mahler identified stages of social learning. What stage states that baby sleeps more than she is awake asking to intrauterine life?

Normal autism

31

Margaret Mahler identified stages of social learning. What stage states that mother and child form a single unit?

Symbiosis

32

Margaret Mahler identified stages of social learning. What stage describes the point where a child becomes aware of the separation of self from mother.

Differentiation

33

Margaret Mahler identified stages of social learning. What stage describes when a child becomes aware of the world and their relative autonomous place in the world and darts away from the mother?

Practicing

34

Margaret Mahler identified stages of social learning. What stage is described when the child realizes they are not autonomous and remains helpful and dependent? The child returns to mother to emotionally refuel?

Rapprochement

35

Margaret Mahler identified stages of social learning. What stage describes the time where a child recognizes that other people have separate identities? The child realizes that they have a unique identity.

Object Constancy

36

John Bowlby developed what concept to explain infants development?

Attachment Disorder Concept

37

What model states that normal or abnormal behavior is the result of condition?

Behavioral Model

38

What type of conditioning is associated with environmental cues and not the result of instinct? A specific response occurs when paired with a stimulus.

Classical Conditioning

39

What type of conditioning describes behaviors that are reinforced are likely to be repeated, whether, they are good or bad?

Operant Conditioning

40

BF Skinner established what type of conditioning?

Operant Conditioning

41

BF Skinner established operant conditioning. What type of Reinforecement and Punishment is associated with something being added?

Positive

42

BF Skinner established operant conditioning. What type of Reinforecement and Punishment is associated with something being taken away?

Negative

43

What describes something added increases the likelihood that desired behavior will be repeated?

Positive reinforcement

44

What describes a noxious or unpleasant stimulus being added to decrease unwanted behavior?

Positive punishment

45

What describes the likelihood of a heavier to re-occur if something is taken away from the situation?

Negative Reinforcement

46

What describes the likelihood of a behavior by invoking some punishment to be used as a deterrent when the behavior is exhibited by removing something good?

Negative Punishment

47

Sigmund Freud developed what type of developmental stage?

Psychosexual Development

48

What stage describes an infant using their oral cavity to explore the world?

Oral stage

49

What type of fixated personality describes an individual who is highly dependent and passive and wants everything done for them?

Oral fixated

50

What stage describes the period of neuromuscular control over anal spinchters?

Anal stage

51

What fixated personality describes an individual who is rigid, overly organized OR contains little self-control, disorganized, defiant, and hostile?

Anal retentive and anal expulsive, respectively.

52

What stage does a child establish gender identity?

Phallic Stage

53

What type of fixated personality describes an individual who is promiscuous, amoral, asexual, or puritanical (overtly religous)?

Phallic Fixated

54

What stage is associated with learning the environment, play, and making friends?

Latency Stage

55

What stage is a time of maturity and enhancement of life such as reproduction, intellectual and artistic creativity?

Puberty or Genital Stage

56

The Id, Ego, and Superego are classified as what?

Structures of the Mind

57

What structure is the pleasure principle?

ID

58

What structure is the reality principle and is the rational part of the mind?

EGO

59

What structure is the perfection ideal or moral part of the mind?

SUPEREGO

60

The topographical theory of the mind includes what three structures?

Conscious, unconscious, and preconscious

61

What is the mental process that makes us aware of both external and internal perceptions and is bound by time?

Conscious

62

What structure is not bound by the time?

Unconscious

63

What structure is the mental process that serves as the transitional unit between the unconscious material to the conscious level?

Preconscious

64

What describes the feelings a patient has towards the clinician because the clinician reminds the patient of someone from the patient's present or past?

Transference

65

What describes a clinician developing feelings and attitudes towards the patient because the patient reminds the clinician of someone from the clinic's present or past?

Countertransference

66

Distorts facts of reality.

Denial

67

Forgetting painful conscious feelings.

Repression

68

Not thinking about unpleasant feelings. The undesirable feelings are available but deliberately ignored.

Suppression

69

Unacceptable personal feelings that are transferred onto someone or something else?

Projection

70

A reaction to a situation perceived as dangerous is not targeted at the cause of anxiety but aimed at another target considered to be more benign and less threatening that the original target.

Displacement

71

Behavior that is opposite to the impulses or feelings that one is trying to repress.

Reaction Formation

72

Thinking to a more children-like farm of referenced when confronted with a siutation that produces anxiety or fear.

Regression

73

Refusal to advance to successive stages of development because progress has become associated with anxiety in some wat.

Fixation

74

Adopting characteristics of someone else to cope with a fear of losing the person with whom one identifies

Identification

75

Attempt to deny one's true motives to oneself or others by using self-serving explanations.

Rationalization

76

Rechanneling the energy connected with an unacceptable impulse into one that is more socially acceptable.

Sublimation

77

Separating feelings from cognitive awareness.

Isolation

78

Using ideas to distance the person from an unacceptable feeling

Intellectualization

79

Involves dealing with stress by using action rather than reflection or feelings

Acting Out

80

Indirectly and unassertively expressing aggression toward others

Passive Aggression

81

Fantasy

gratifying frustrated desires by imaginary achievement