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Flashcards in Sleep Wake Disorders Deck (33):
1

Non-rapid eye movement is divided into how many stages based on EEG?

Four stages

2

What is characterized by slowing of EEG rhythms, higher muscle tone, absence of eye movements, and absence of thought like activity?

Sleep

3

What stage of NREM is associated with theta waves?

Stage 1

4

What stage of NREM is associated with sleep spindles and K complexes?

Stage 2

5

What stage of NREM is associated with delta waves? This stage is also the deepest part of NREM and increases after exercise.

Stage 3

6

What type of sleep is associated with an aroused EEG, sexual arousal, saccadic eye movements, and dreaming?

REM (Rapid Eye Movement)

7

Learning and memory is associated with a(n) ___ REM?

Increased

8

What intefers with performance of complex tasks, decreased attention to detail, and the in ability to deal with crisis?

Sleep deprivation

9

Sleep deprivation has its greatest effects on what part of the brain?

Cerebral cortex

10

What hormone is increased in stage 4 sleep?

hGH

11

What happens to the levels of prolactin and serotonin during sleep?

Increased

12

What happens to the levels of dopamine and TSH during sleep?

Decreased

13

What sleep disorder is associated with dissatisfaction with sleep quantity or quality and difficulty in initiating and maintaining sleep?

Insomnia disorder

14

Insomnia disorder must occur how many nights per week?

3 nights per week

15

What disorder is associated with self-reported excessive sleepiness despite a main sleep period lasting at least 7 hours? Patients lapses into sleep within the same day. Sleep episodes are greater than 9 hours.

Hypersomnolence disorder

16

What disorder is associated with recurrent periods of irrepressible need to sleep, lapsing into sleep, or napping? Patients may experience episodes of cataplexy.

Narcolepsy

17

What type of apnea is characterized by at least 5 episodes of obstructive apneas per hour of sleep and symptoms OR evidence 15 obstructive apneas per hours regardless of symptoms?

Obstructive sleep apnea

18

What type of sleep apnea is associated with 5 central apnea per hour with no evidence of obstruction? Cheyne-Stokes breathing is seen in this type of apnea.

Central sleep apnea

19

What type of sleep disorder is characterized by episodes of decreased respiration associated with elevated CO2?

Sleep related hypoventilation

20

Comorbid sleep-related hypoventilation is associated with what?

A medical conduction, such as a pulmonary disorder

21

What type of sleep-wake disorder is associated with a persistent or recurrent pattern of sleep disruption due to alteration of circadian system OR misalignment between endogenous circadian rhythm and sleep wake schedule?

Circadian rhythm sleep-wake disorder

22

What disorder is associated with recurrent episodes of incomplete awakening from sleep accompanied by sleepwalking or sleep terrors?

Non-REM sleep arousal disorder

23

What type of disorder is associated with extremely dysphoric and well-remembered dreams that usually involves efforts to avoid threats to survival, security, or physical integrity?

Nightmare disorder

24

What type of disorder is associated with repeated episodes of arousal during sleep associated with vocalization or complex motor behaviors? These activities arise during REM sleep.

REM sleep behavior disorder

25

What disorder is characterized by an urge to move legs usually accompanied by a response to an uncomfortable sensation in the legs? This worsens with activity and is relieved by movement.

Restless leg syndrome

26

What neurotransmitter increases wakefulness and is antagonistic to sleep?

Dopamine

27

Alcohol intoxication decreases what part of sleep?

REM

28

Barbiturates decreases what part of sleep?

REM

29

Major depression disorder decreases what period of sleep

REM

30

What NT does what to sleep?

Initiates

31

ACH is higher during what sleep cycle?

REM

32

Norepinephrine is lower during what sleep cycle?

REM

33

What NT produces arousal and wakefulness?

Dopamine