Flashcards in issues in biotech Deck (20):
what is informed consent
process by which a fully informed patient or research participant can make choices about his/her health
4 elements of disclosure
- nature and purpose (know what's happening. interaction with doctor.)
- procedures to be used (disclose how, why, and recovery)
- expected benefits (restore functionality)
-forseeable risks, stresses, discomforts (convey risks to patient. ansewr questions)
HIV/AIDS and gene editing.
- gene editing: possible but dont know where it leads. 2 chinese girls bord + genes were edited against HIV/AIDs
-> were twins at risk?
-> did doc do it properly?
-> are there other consequences?
-> did parents get full disclosure?
informed consent involves
opportunity to ask questions + have questions answered
-patient given info - knowledgeable + can answer questions
=> patient given info, knowledgeable answer questions
participants must be competent to give consent
- not competent due to mental status, disease, emergency, designated surrogate may provide consent.
- children don't consent.
- emergency/unconscious - implicit that want to live.
voluntary participation includes?
free of coercion or promises of benefits unlikely to result from participation
organ transplantation- new?
past few decades have medical knowledge + tech to have organ transplant routine.
organ transplant - issue in bio ethics
human body for slave + wage labour has long history. (exploitation
- organ transplant, body gained commercial value as source of spare parts
commodifying body parts: problem of supply + demand, price/value?
increased demand of organ transplantation
better immune suppression + anti-rejection drugs means more people are candidates
-criteria for eligibility to receive a transplant has become less restrictive
how has criteria loosened over time?
past: over 65 and too many co-morbid conditions
now: older age, advances in tech, patient loosened criteria
scarcity of supply in organ transplant
number of ppl willing to donate is enough to meet growing demand
- 1/3 ppl waiting list in Canada die before donor found.
price/value of organ transplant
- illegal to sell body parts in many parts of the world. but if on market high value, low supply.
- by donation
travel from wealthier countries to parts of the world where both an organ and operation can be had for a price
black market organs
outside govt regulation.
altho international assoc tracks organs.
- little oversight over illegal trade.
exploiting world's desperate + poor - how?
approx 50 Canadians/year travel to another coutry for transplant.
-illegal here, not elsewhere.
do you stop ppl getting health care in Canada if get this surgery
where are most common destinations for transplant tourism?
india, philippines, israel, cuba
selling is unethical
commodification of the body allows people to view the bodies of others as a means to their own ends
= pay for service
seller not in need service, not treated as patient - comes w risks.
not all money goes to seller.
informed consent - full disclosure? lifted out of poverty?
-no oversight, no guarantee abt disclosure.
desparately poor - sell organ to lift out of poverty.
- reduce discrepancy between supply + demand
=market relatino. can't infringe on this right. supply/demand never goes away.
- not looking at health of seller. are organs healthy?