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Flashcards in issues in biotech Deck (20):

what is informed consent

process by which a fully informed patient or research participant can make choices about his/her health


4 elements of disclosure

- nature and purpose (know what's happening. interaction with doctor.)
- procedures to be used (disclose how, why, and recovery)
- expected benefits (restore functionality)
-forseeable risks, stresses, discomforts (convey risks to patient. ansewr questions)


HIV/AIDS and gene editing.

scientist violated.
- gene editing: possible but dont know where it leads. 2 chinese girls bord + genes were edited against HIV/AIDs
-> were twins at risk?
-> did doc do it properly?
-> are there other consequences?
-> did parents get full disclosure?


informed consent involves

voluntary participation


understanding includes?

participant understand
opportunity to ask questions + have questions answered
-patient given info - knowledgeable + can answer questions
=> patient given info, knowledgeable answer questions


competence includes?

participants must be competent to give consent
- not competent due to mental status, disease, emergency, designated surrogate may provide consent.
- children don't consent.
- emergency/unconscious - implicit that want to live.


voluntary participation includes?

free of coercion or promises of benefits unlikely to result from participation


organ transplantation- new?

past few decades have medical knowledge + tech to have organ transplant routine.


organ transplant - issue in bio ethics

human body for slave + wage labour has long history. (exploitation
- organ transplant, body gained commercial value as source of spare parts
commodifying body parts: problem of supply + demand, price/value?


increased demand of organ transplantation

better immune suppression + anti-rejection drugs means more people are candidates
-criteria for eligibility to receive a transplant has become less restrictive


how has criteria loosened over time?

past: over 65 and too many co-morbid conditions

now: older age, advances in tech, patient loosened criteria


scarcity of supply in organ transplant

number of ppl willing to donate is enough to meet growing demand
- 1/3 ppl waiting list in Canada die before donor found.


price/value of organ transplant

- illegal to sell body parts in many parts of the world. but if on market high value, low supply.
- by donation


transplant tourism?

travel from wealthier countries to parts of the world where both an organ and operation can be had for a price


black market organs

outside govt regulation.
altho international assoc tracks organs.
- little oversight over illegal trade.


exploiting world's desperate + poor - how?

approx 50 Canadians/year travel to another coutry for transplant.
-illegal here, not elsewhere.
do you stop ppl getting health care in Canada if get this surgery


where are most common destinations for transplant tourism?

india, philippines, israel, cuba


selling is unethical

commodification of the body allows people to view the bodies of others as a means to their own ends
= pay for service
seller not in need service, not treated as patient - comes w risks.
not all money goes to seller.
informed consent - full disclosure? lifted out of poverty?
-no oversight, no guarantee abt disclosure.


libertarian view

desparately poor - sell organ to lift out of poverty.
- reduce discrepancy between supply + demand
=market relatino. can't infringe on this right. supply/demand never goes away.
- not looking at health of seller. are organs healthy?


excluding on p2299-310. in ch 11.
essay Q worth 10 points. 2/3 paragraphs. good answers, make it concise.

2 questions gonna be uploaded:
-> implementation to improve health of Canadians. 2 sociological recommendations to improve health?
---- be creative, talk about things we talked about + talk about them well. sociological (need to think of structural arrangement of society. how organized in ways that are damaging to society - those who hold little power in society)
= rooted in sociology + what it means about health.
= justify.
= also make negative recommendation (mistake to put more resources in HC - bc HC =/= health. too much health care - not enough to overall health.

structure of Q. arguement, evidence, examples. show why example matters ** makes for really strong answer.

would love intro/conclusion. but ability to argue that supports it is best. qulaity of ideas that matters + arguing well.
*pen possibly double space*

Q2: contrast structural-functionalist view of patient with contemporary view of patient. to what extend does transformation from patient to consumer pose a threat to medical dominance.
--> back to material in beginning of course. compare with more recent stuffs.
-> Parsons (dont need responsibilityvs right)
-> what does it meanto be patient. unequal. passive recipient. in Parsonian view. care of physician achieves cure. comply w medical treatment
-> to contemporary patient. commodified, HC subject to laws of market - nature of relationship becomes mroe symmetrical.
direct to consumer advertising; issue of right to live/die. struggle for power. patients heard, given greater voice. experiential knowledge - live with condition. exclusive to them.
- at end of day do u think this is challenge to medical dominance? physician losing power? evidence to support. physician navigate thru to more power. overlook mechanisms theyre supposed to do. - hassan's case. do physicians often skip?