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Flashcards in Social Approaches Deck (23):

structural functionalism - define 6 key points

social arragnements exist bc benefit society.
- functional interdependence: each contribute to whole
- social hierarchy: benefit for inequality, ppl strive for knowledge for better pay.
- equilibrium: society functions properly when in peace + harmony
- disruption= felt across whole of society.
- social change is gradual = greater differentiation but functionally integrated.


what is functional interdependence in view of structural functionalism?

each part contributes to whole


why is social hierarchy important in view of structural functionalism?

benefit from inequality bc ppl strive for hgihest/best. if all equal, easy route more desirable.


why is equilibrium in society beneficial in view of strucutral funcitonalism?

when society is at peace, all parts can move together for proper functioning.


discuss disruption in society in view of structural functionalism?

disruption is felt throughout society, even when most impact on one part.


how does social change come about in view of structural functionalism?

gradual. greater differentiation, but still functionally integrated


Talcott Parsons - structural functionalism - illness + role

illness is form of deviance because not fulfilling role. disrupting the norm + the functional interdependence of society.
created sick role mechanism: temporary role that ppl play when they become ill.


doc-patient relationship

both have rights +obligations. .
assymmetrical relationship: patients are passive recipients of care, have knowledge and power


define the sick role: patient
- expectations

patient: not responsible for being sick; exempted from normal social obligations while sick
patient expectations: want to get well, seek + comply w treatment


define sick roles: physician
- privileges
- expectations

privilege: autonomy, self-regulating. allowed access to patient's body

expectation: technically competent + neutral - no invested in outcome. emotionally removed, no affective component towards patient


critiques of sick role theory

1. see doc = end process in help-seeking behaviour. heal on own first.
2. idealized view = doc + patient dont always have same goals.
3. assume illness is acute + temporary (not true due to epidemiological transition)
4. assumes sick role is able to be taken by everyone. some ppl can't afford to take sick role due to money/work insecurity. not everyone has access to healthcare = social inhibitions


what is social constructionism view of health?

socially defines. social problems recognized through activity + assertions/claims. subjective interpretation of health + illness has large impact on what is valid in healthcare.


social constructionsim: socially defined

created thru interaction + interpretive practice.
arises thru interactions: interpretation of world causes us to see it in certain way.


social constructionism: recognized thru activities and assertions/claims

turn attention to problem. make meaning. certain ppl have certain agendas, make assertions/claims about how healthcare exists.


social contructionism: discource abt health + illness produced subjectively

determined bc agree to see something in particular way. subjective intrpretation - make meaning out of what we see.


social constructionism: seniors in canada example

individualized, depoliticized.
youre responsibility, independence, not a burden. neglectful of social context.


criticisms of social contructionism

- doesn't fully acknowledge real impact of experience of illness = looks at illness whether it exists or not, but forgets suffering of individual regardess whether considered disease.
- denying discovery, ignoring future improvements: meaning making, ignore personal experience
- relativism: views are relative, meaning makers have certain ideas that they deem as good. but if meaning maker changes, so does importance.


conflict theory - general

society characterized by conflict + exploitation.
diverse units fighting for dominance and resources. appearance of consensus is result of coercion or false consciousness


what is false consciousness - re: conflict theory

not aware that you are being taken avantage of when you take on role in society.


conflict theory re: health

disease is result of differential access to power. fewest resources, least power = most vulnerable. labelled "ill" = denied access to resource +power.
-system abandons them. become their role of "sick" for long term.


conflict theory: re: tobacco industry.

tobacco industry knows smoking isnt healthy. minime info, hide it + claim opposite for personal gain.
demographic shift in smoking frmo upper class men to upper class women, then lower calss m+w. now, less likely to occur in upper class bc know risks


criticisms of conflict theory

macro-level.. cannot accoutn for how individuals make meaning + choices.


define agency

how ppl think + feel about things