Japanese JLPT N2 文法 2 Flashcards Preview

Japanese JLPT N2 文法 > Japanese JLPT N2 文法 2 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Japanese JLPT N2 文法 2 Deck (24):
1

~かいがあって

"it was worth (it)..."
- explains the effect/result of effort or perseverance

Usage: Vる・Vた・Nの かいがあって

Also → 「~かいがある」

2

~かいもなくて

"even though (effort was made), the result was...."
- explains when an undesired or unexpected result occurs despite effort being made to get the desired result.

Usage: Vた・Nの かいがない

Also → 「~かいもなく」

3

~がい

"worth ...."
- used with verbs; i.e. (it was) worth doing, worth going, etc

Usage: Vがい ←ますDrop

4

~てまで

Used to show when you feel that the action taken is too much; it has gone too far.

Usage: Vてまで・NまでVて

ex) 親にうそをついてまで
遊びに行きたくない。
I don't want to go if it means lying to my parents (as that action is going to far).

5

~かける

"unfinished"
used to explain when something is left unfinished, but can also mean "almost"

Usage: Vかける ← ますDrop

Also → 「~かけのN」「かけだ」

6

~切る
(~きる)

Used when describing that something has completely finished or been spent (nothing remains).

Usage: V切る ← ますDrop

Also → 「~切れる」「~切れない」

7

~える/~うる
~えない

"possible" / "impossible"

Usage: Vある/うる (Possible)
Usage: Vえない (=あるはずがない)(impossible)

8

~抜く
(~ぬく)

When a condition continues until the end. To complete without giving up.

Usage: V抜く ← ますDrop

ex) 彼はあきらめずにゴールまで走り抜いた。
"he ran all the way to the goal line without giving up"

9

~うちに

Used to state intent to do something while a condition is still active (as that condition is likely to change soon).

Usage: Vない・Vている・Aい・naな・Nの うちに

ex) 桜がきれいなうちに、お花見に行きましょう。
"let's go see the cherry blossoms while they are still beautiful"

10

~か~ないかのうちに

"at the very moment that" "as soon as"
- used when something happens as soon as another condition has been met

Usage: VるかVないかのうちに

11

~限り
(~かぎり)

"as long as"
"so far"

Usage: Vる・Vない・Aい・Aくない・Nである・naである かぎり

Usage: Vる・Vた・Vている かぎり(では)← "so far"

12

~に限り
(~にかぎり)

Used to show when something is a special case.

Usage: Nに限り・Nに限って

Also → Nに限らず~も (negative; not a special case)

13

~さえ~ば

"As long as (condition met)"
- basically used to explain when a condition is met, it is enough.

Usage: NさえV/Aけれ ば

Also → NさえN/naなら
Also → Vさえすれば 

14

~からこそ

"because"
- used when explaining the reason for the result of your actions

Usage: V/N/A/na からこそ

Also → Vば・Aければ・naであれば・Nであれば こそ

15

~てこそ

"since" or "because"
- used when explaining experiencing something new. 「Vて、はじめて」

Usage: Vてこそ

ex) 親になってこそ、親の苦労がわかる。
Since I became a parent, I realise the difficulties of being one.

16

~ばかりだ

"only" or "just"
- when a negative think continues to increase/get worse

Usage: Vるばかりだ

Also → Vるのみだ (formal)

ex) 物価は上げるばかりだ。
"the cost of living just keeps going up"

17

~にしたら

"for"
- to explain how something impacts something else. ie "x is a problem for y"

Usage: Nにしたら

Also → 「Nにすれば」「Nにしてみたら」「Nにしてみれば」

18

~としたら

"if that (is/was the case)"

Usage: V/A/N/na としたら

Also → 「V/A/N/na とすれば」

19

~としても

"Even if"

Usage: V/A/N/na としても

Also → 「V/A/N/na としたって」

20

~を~として

"as the" or "as a"
- to explain the nature of something

Usage: N1をN2としてV

Also → 「N1をN2とするN」「N1をN2としたN」

ex) 山田さんをリーダーとするサークルを作る。
We will make a club with Yamada-san as the leader.

21

~とともに

Expresses a gradual change.
Expresses an instantaneous change due to cause and effect.
Expresses "together" - 「_と一緒に_」

Usage: Nと・Vると ともに

ex) 家族とともに来日した。
"I came to Japan (together) with my family."

22

~にともなって

Same as 「~とともに」- Expresses a change.

Usage: Nに・Vるのに・Vたのに ともなって

Also → 「~ともない」「~ともなうN」

23

~につれて

Expresses a gradual change in two things due to correlation.

Usage: Nに・Vるに つれて

Also → 「~につれ」

ex) 年を取るにつれて、体のいろいろな機能が低下する。
As you get older, the various bodily functions deteriorate.

24

~にしたがって

Same as 「~につれて」OR same as 「~とおり」
( x as per y )

Usage: N・Vる にしたがって

Also → 「~にしたがい」